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Future threats to health and environment

Future Threats to the Global Environment-NanoMaterials, Manmade Viruses & Biomimetic Robots

February 26, 2009

Forget about rising global water levels: Researchers, policymakers and environmental campaigners have identified 25 potential future threats to the environment including nanomaterials, manmade viruses and biomimetic robots. In addition to well-publicized risks such as toxic nanomaterials, the acidification of the ocean and increasingly frequent extreme weather events, the list includes some spooky scifi sounding possibilities:

• Biomimetic robots that could become new invasive species.

• Experiments involving climate engineering, for instance ocean 'fertilization' and deploying solar shields

• Increased demand for the biomass needed to make biofuel.

• Disruption to marine ecosystems caused by offshore power generation.

• Experiments to control invasive species using genetically engineered viruses.

William Sutherland, a zoologist at the University of Cambridge, led a series of horizon-scanning workshops where the threats where highlighted.

Some of the threats identified are more speculative, such as robots that imitate animal behavior and microbes made from synthetic molecules and might eventually behave like invasive species.

Posted by Jason McManus.

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Antidepressants and emotions

Antidepressant Drugs May Also Suppress Basic Human Emotions

Published on 02-25-2009 Email To Friend Print Version

Antidepressant drugs, already known to cause sexual side effects, may also suppress the basic human emotions of love and romance.

That SSRIs, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors — the most common type of antidepressant — cause sexual dysfunction is common knowledge. Of the 31 million adults in the United States who take the SSRIs, about 30 percent are believed to experience sexual dysfunction.

But a new theory suggests that SSRI antidepressants may also subtly alter the fundamental chemistry of love and romance, snuffing the first sparks between two people otherwise destined to become lovers, and preventing couples from bonding.

"There's every reason to think SSRIs blunt your ability to fall and stay in love," said Helen Fisher, a Rutgers University biological anthropologist who has pioneered the modern science of love.

For some people, of course, sexual side effects are an acceptable price to pay for curing debilitating depression. But as antidepressant use becomes more common, extending beyond full-blown clinical depression to disorders like anxiety and, in some cases, insomnia, the possibility of love-stunting is troubling.

SSRI antidepressants work by boosting circulating levels of serotonin, a mood-regulating neurotransmitter that also inhibits desire. The drugs also decrease dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in a wide range of cognitive and behavioral processes, among them desire and arousal. The new research suggests that dopamine may also play a part in romance.

During sex, a cocktail of hormones is released that appears to play important roles in fostering romantic attachment within the brain. Take away sex, and romantic love can dwindle. But this is just part of the problem, say Fisher and University of Virginia psychiatrist James Thomson.

Dopamine also appears central to the neurobiology of romantic love and attachment, conditions that Fisher believes to be affected by — but ultimately distinct from — sexual love and its effects. She and Thomson say that SSRIs may do more than cause sexual dysfunction: They also suppress romance.

"There are all sorts of unconscious systems in our brain that we use to negotiate romantic love and romantic attraction," said Thomson. "If these drugs cause conscious sexual side effects, we'd argue that there are going to be side effects that are not conscious."

According to Fisher, humans have three distinct but interconnected love-related brain systems: one for sex, another for attachment and another for romantic love. This is still hypothetical — nobody knows exactly what love does in the brain — but Fisher has been a pioneering researcher on romantic love's neurobiology, and dopamine indeed appears important.

When couples have just fallen in love, the mere sight of the other causes a jump in dopamine-related brain activity. If they manage to stay in love, with the early flush giving way to long-term affection, those brain patterns stay active.

Reduced dopamine levels, however, are an inevitable effect of SSRIs. Reduce dopamine, say Fisher and Thomson, and the possibility of love itself is reduced.

Though biologically plausible, definitive evidence for this has yet to be found. The only study to specifically test the hypothesis was conducted by Saint Mary's University psychologist Maryanne Fisher, who found that women taking antidepressants tended to have muted reactions when showed pictures of attractive men. The effect was small, however, and the study has not been reproduced.

University of California at Los Angeles psychiatrist Andrew Leuchter acknowledged that increasing serotonin can decrease dopamine, but has not seen difficulties in forming emotional attachments among his patients. "I've seen people who have great difficulty with their emotional attachments, who think they've fallen out of love or want to isolate themselves, come alive again," said Leuchter, who receives funding from antidepressant drugmakers. "I'm not sure the syndrome [Fisher and Thomson] describe exists."

Thomson and Fisher, on the other hand, report the opposite: antidepressant takers who've lost the capacity for romantic feeling.

Clinical studies of antidepressant side effects do little to settle this debate. They've focused on sexual problems, which are far easier to measure than subtle effects on something so ephemeral as a spark.

Thomson recommended that psychologists investigating romance ask test subjects whether they take antidepressants. He also suggests that the possibility of romantic stunting be considered when deciding whether antidepressants should be prescribed to a child or young adult.

"Does it impact the development of those areas of the brain involved in love and sexuality? Does it impair the feelings and behaviors of romantic love and sexuality and the learning processes, which might be required to bring those areas of the brain online?" said Thomson. "We don't know."

Said Fisher, "We want to know about the side effects of other drugs. Why not know about the side effects of these drugs, which affect our reproductive future?"

Another alternative could be drugs that don't boost serotonin. Bupropion, also known as Wellbutrin, increases levels of dopamine and norepinephrine, another neurotransmitter; it's been associated with far lower levels of sexual dysfunction, but doesn't work for everyone.

Drug companies are currently designing next-generation antidepressants that raise dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine levels simultaneously, and might have fewer romantic side effects. However, none of these drugs are yet on the market, and projected side effects remain hypothetical.

"Any drug in development is always better than anything out there," said Leuchter. "And then, once they hit the market, nothing is perfect."

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Mouthwash and oral cancer risk

(NaturalNews) The use of mouthwashes that contain alcohol as an ingredient can drastically increase a person's risk of cancers of the mouth, head and neck, according to a study conducted by researchers from the Australia's University of Melbourne and University of Queensland School of Dentistry.

Researchers studied use of mouthwash among 3,210 people and compared it with rates of mouth, head and neck cancers.

"We see people with oral cancer who have no other risk factors than the use of [mouthwash containing alcohol], so what we've done is review all the evidence," said lead researcher Michael McCullough, chair of the Australian Dental Association's therapeutics committee,

The researchers found that all participants who used an alcohol-containing mouthwash at least once per day had a significantly increased risk of cancer, independent of other risk factors such as smoking or drinking alcoholic beverages. Among those who both used alcohol-containing mouthwash and regularly drank alcoholic beverages, the risk of cancers of the larynx, pharynx or oral cavity was five times that of people who drank but did not use mouthwash. The risk of cancer in people who smoked and used alcohol-containing mouthwashes was an astonishing nine times that of non-mouthwash-using smokers.

"Since this article, further evidence has come out," McCullough said. "We believe there should be warnings. If it was a facial cream that had the effect of reducing acne but had a four to fivefold increased risk of skin cancer, no one would be recommending it."

The body breaks down alcohol, also known as ethanol, into a carcinogenic compound called acetaldehyde. The researchers note that due to the way that mouthwash is swished around, acetaldehyde may thereby accumulate in the oral cavity.

In addition, the researchers believe that alcohol makes mucus membranes more permeable to other chemicals, allowing nicotine and other carcinogens increased access to the body's tissues.

Sources for this story include: news.scotsman.com.

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HOW to avoid cancer risk by 90%

(NaturalNews) Although you won't hear this from the cancer industry or the drug companies that profit from cancer, there's an easy, low-cost and remarkably safe way to slash cancer rates around the world by about one-third, says the World Cancer Research Fund: Promote healthy foods and exercise! (http://www.wcrf-uk.org)

According to research just released by the WCRF, simple changes in diet and exercise can prevent nearly 40 percent of breast and pancreatic cancers, 36 percent of lung cancers, over 60 percent of mouth cancers, a quarter of kidney cancers and 45 percent of bowel cancers.

Remarkably, these results were achieved without any mention of vitamin D! By adding vitamin D to the mix, which by itself has been demonstrated to prevent an astonishing 77 percent of all cancers (http://www.naturalnews.com/021892.html), cancer prevention rates approaching 90 percent overall can be easily achieved.

This report also did not mention eliminating dangerous cancer-causing chemicals from the diet, such as sodium nitrite found in processed meats (hot dogs, sausage, bacon, etc.) and artificial chemical sweeteners. It also did not take into account the health benefits of avoiding cancer-causing chemicals in personal care products such as shampoo, antibacterial soap, common fragrance products, hand lotions and so on (choose 100% natural, USDA-certified organic versions of these products to avoid the toxic chemicals).

Avoiding mammograms, which harm ten women for every one that it helps (http://www.naturalnews.com/020829.html), also greatly reduces the risk of breast cancer. A much safer alternative is to use breast thermograms, which offer far more accurate detection without the dangerous radiation.

If you take all lifestyle changes into account, achieving a 90 percent reduction in overall cancer rates is quite readily achievable.

Authors quotes on lifestyle

Below, you'll find selected quotes from noted authors on the subject of Cancer and Lifestyle. Feel free to quote these in your own work provided you give proper credit to both the original author quoted here and this NaturalNews page.

The lifetime risk for developing cancer is a startling 45 percent for men and 39 percent for women, according to the National cancer Institute. The most frequent form of cancer is lung cancer, followed by prostate cancer for men and breast cancer for women. Colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer in both sexes. Throughout the world, industrialized countries have the highest cancer death rates. Studies show that when people from Third World countries adopt Western lifestyles, certain types of cancers -- especially colon, breast, and prostate -- increase.
- Healing Moves: How To Cure, Relieve, And Prevent Common Ailments With Exercise by Carol Krucoff and Mitchell Krucoff, M.D.
- Available on Amazon.com

Myth: cancer runs in families. Only about 8% of cancers are genetically linked. These usually are cancers that occur in younger patients, such as sarcoma or early-onset colon cancer. The vast majority of cancers occur without a known cause or are related to lifestyle.
- Bottom Line's Health Breakthroughs 2007 by Bottom Line Health
- Available on Amazon.com

Now is the time to do some serious thinking about our approach to cancer and disease. It is time we looked directly at the prevention and elimination of cancer, not just the remission or a prescription for cancer. In recent times, some prescription drugs have cured some forms of cancer. However, there is still a lot of cancer killing many people. Data from various agencies such as the National cancer Institute and others show that up to 90% of all cancers are products of our lifestyle, a lack of exercise, exposure to toxic chemicals, and what we choose to eat and drink.
- Defeat Cancer by Gregory, A. Gore
- Available on Amazon.com

Because some cancers have a genetic link, if you have a family member who battled cancer, you may feel that there's a time bomb ticking inside you. Actually, it's estimated that only 5 to 10 percent of all cancers might be attributed to a genetic predisposition. However, lifestyle remains a significant factor. According to the American Institute for cancer Research (AICR), 60 to 70 percent of cancers can be collectively attributed to lifestyle choices, including smoking, unhealthy diets, lack of physical activity, and excessive weight.
- Food Synergy: Unleash Hundreds of Powerful Healing Food Combinations to Fight Disease and Live Well by Elaine Magee
- Available on Amazon.com

Putting the two together, she avoided all milk products; her tumors eventually disappeared, and for 13 years now she has been free of cancer. As Chinese have "normal" rates of other cancers, there must be a special factor that causes their low breast cancer rates. Also the largely milk-free Japanese have low breast cancer rates, but when Chinese or Japanese women adopt a Western lifestyle, their breast cancer rates start to climb, approaching the level in Western countries. Studies now link milk consumption to breast and prostate cancer.
- The Natural Way to Heal: 65 Ways to Create Superior Health by Walter Last
- Available on Amazon.com

Most cancers are primarily the result of changes that humans have made to the total chemical environment -- what we eat, drink, and breathe. According
275 to one of Britain's top medical scientists, Sir Richard Doll, 90 percent of all cancers are caused by such environmental factors. At least 75 percent of cancers are associated with environmental and lifestyle factors, say even the most conservative cancer experts. medical drugs industrial products food additives alcohol
What causes cancer?
- The New Optimum Nutrition Bible by Patrick Holford
- Available on Amazon.com

The good news is that you can change your statistics by changing your lifestyle. The everyday choices that you make about what you do with your time, what you eat, and even what you decide to smear on your body affects your long-term health. Both heart disease and cancer are largely environmental, and by improving your lifestyle, you will reduce your risk of getting heart disease or cancer.
- The Natural Hormone Makeover: 10 Steps to Rejuvenate Your Health and Rediscover Your Inner Glow by Phuli Cohan
- Available on Amazon.com

Regular mammograms of women with fibrocystic breast disease are as likely to initiate cancer as find it. An anti-cancer lifestyle and regular breast self-massage or self-exam, on the other hand, can actively prevent cancer, as well as providing early detection. Although sclerosing adenosis, apocrine metaplasia, duct ectasia, lipoma, fat necrosis, and mastitis are scary sounding, they aren't serious and do not increase risk of breast cancer. Having a biopsy does not increase your risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer. Almost all biopsies (90 percent) are negative for cancer.
- Breast Cancer? Breast Health! The Wise Woman Way by Susun S. Weed
- Available on Amazon.com

Analysis of 156 studies linking diet and cancer found extraordinarily consistent evidence that some foods actively protect cells from undergoing cancerous changes, especially breast, cervical, ovarian, and prostate cells. While these foods don't guarantee freedom from cancer, they are vital elements of an anti-cancer lifestyle. The United States National Research Council states that 35-70 percent of all U.S. Cancer deaths are related to diet and that 60 percent of the cancer incidence in women is related to diet.
- Breast Cancer? Breast Health! The Wise Woman Way by Susun S. Weed
- Available on Amazon.com

Might it be possible that cancer is largely due to environmental/ lifestyle factors, and not genetics? A few prominent scientists had already reached that conclusion. The authors of a major review on diet and cancer, prepared for the U.S. Congress in 1981, estimated that genetics only determines about 2-3% of the total cancer risk. The data behind the China cancer atlas were profound. The counties with the highest rates of some cancers were more than 100 times greater than counties with the lowest rates of these cancers. These are truly remarkable figures.
- The China Study: The Most Comprehensive Study of Nutrition Ever Conducted and the Startling Implications for Diet, Weight Loss and Long-term Health by T. Colin Campbell, Ph.D. and Thomas M. Campbell II
- Available on Amazon.com

Family history of prostate cancer is a strong predictor of which men are at greatest risk for this form of cancer. [European Urology 47: 761-68, 2005] But this is a very misleading statement. Frequently men hear they are at greater risk for prostate cancer because their grandfathers died of prostate cancer. But disease that follows along family lines may be due to controllable factors (iron intake, smoking, sun exposure and vitamin D production, infection, etc.). Men can make alterations in their lifestyles and negate the risk for prostate cancer.
- You Don't Have to be Afraid of Cancer Anymore by Bill Sardi
- Available on Amazon.com

Although there is debate regarding the specifics of diet and this cancer, let's start with some very safe assumptions that have long been accepted in the research community:
• Prostate cancer rates vary widely between different countries, even more than breast cancer.
• High prostate cancer rates primarily exist in societies with "Western" diets and lifestyles.
• In developing countries, men who adopt Western eating practices or move to Western countries suffer more prostate cancer.
These disease patterns are similar to those of other diseases of affluence.
- The China Study: The Most Comprehensive Study of Nutrition Ever Conducted and the Startling Implications for Diet, Weight Loss and Long-term Health by T. Colin Campbell, Ph.D. and Thomas M. Campbell II
- Available on Amazon.com

It is wonderful to have the opportunity to help men with prostate cancer by using herbs, supplements, and dietary and lifestyle guidelines as their primary treatment strategy; to see them get well, thrive, and show no apparent signs of cancer is even better. I have found that many prostate cancers, even some of the more aggressive forms (high PSA, high Gleason score, even a palpable tumor or evidence of metastasis) respond beautifully to natural healing modalities.
- Herbal Medicine, Healing and Cancer: A Comprehensive Program for Prevention and Treatment by Donald R. Yance, j r.,C.N., M.H., A.H.G., with Arlene Valentine
- Available on Amazon.com

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The History of Apples



The world as we know it began with the apple. According to Genesis 3:6, Eve partook of the forbidden fruit, gave it to Adam and their eyes were opened. This fruit of knowledge is generally represented by the apple. Were it not for Eve’s transgression, mankind would never have been born. In the eyes of Christians, at least, our world began with the apple.

Malus pumila, the paradise apple has been symbolic of many things throughout history. The genus name Malus comes from the Latin root “mal” which means bad or evil. In the Garden of Eden it represents sin and knowledge. “…the apple of my eye” are the words used by Jehovah in the Old Testament of the Bible, to describe his favored people. The ‘apple’ of the eye is the pupil, the center. God said he kept the children of Israel in the apple of his eye as a way of saying to them that they were central and favored, that he watched over them even in their trials.

Cutting an apple cross-wise will reveal more symbolism. The shape revealed is a five-pointed star. This pentagram, though often mistaken for a satanic symbol, is actually a Christian symbol which represents the atonement. This five pointed star is also called the Star of Bethlehem, representing the star that appeared at the birth of Jesus Christ. The seeds within the star of the fruit represent the Resurrection and Immortality or Rebirth, as this is how the fruit continues its life. This one fruit symbolizes the Birth, Sin and Death of man, then the Birth of a Savior who will Atone and Resurrect him to Immortality and Eternal Life.

This symbolism was carried though to several ancient pagan cultures as well. The Scandinavians had their goddess, Iduna whose name meant ‘at-one-ness,’ very close to the word ‘atonement.’ According to legend, she tended the apple orchards at Asgard a land for the Immortals. To Asgard the other gods went each night to renew themselves. Their immortality depended on partaking of Iduna’s apples.

Like Asgard, Avalon was another place for the Immortals. It was believed that Celtic heros like King Arthur didn’t die but sailed through the mist to reach Avalon. Avalon was the “Apple Island”. The name came from the Welsh word “afal” or apple.

The Irish mythological heros were summoned to Emain Ablach, (Emain of the Apple Trees) or the Avalon equivalent, “Avallach”. This was done by an “other-worldly woman who brings the hero a silver-white blossomed apple branch from Emain…” Some believe these legends to be rooted in descriptions of druidic ceremonies.

In addition to being a fruit rich in symbolism, there is much plant lore assigned to the apple. Apple boughs hung above the door frame of a house are said to bless the couple that resides therein with added peace and love. Others have used the apple in a love spell that involves cutting the apple cross-wise and sharing it with the one that you love to increase the attraction. In Danish folklore, however, apples are believed to wither around adulterers.

Many American children have bobbed for apples on Halloween. This child’s game may have originated from and Irish Tradition, “La mas nbhal.” This was “the feast of the apple gathering” which took place on All Hallow Eve. There was a spicy cider and toast beverage in which apples were floated. “It was usual for each person who partook of the spicy beverage to take out an apple and eat it, wishing good luck to the company.”

In England on Christmas Eve, there once was a popular custom called, “wassailing the orchard trees.” The farmer with his family and workers would honor the most productive trees in the orchard with cider and hot cakes while saying the following toast three times:

“Here’s to thee, old apple tree!”
Whence thou mays’t bud, and whence thou mays’t blow,
Hats full! Caps full! Bushel-bushel-bags full!
And my pockets full, too! Huzza!”

Still in practice by some as late as the early 1900’s, wassailing was believed to ensure that the best trees would continue to bear much fruit.

“Wassaile the trees, that they may beare,
You many a Plum and many a Peare,
For more or lesse fruits they will bring,
As you do give them Wassailing.”

No respectable folk or legend history of apples would be complete would be complete without mentioning Sir Isaac Newton or Johnny Appleseed. Around 1665 or 1666, Newton went to spend some time at his mother’s home away from London. While sitting in the shade of an apple tree he contemplated his many scientific interests. He saw an apple fall to the ground. This inspired him to make the connection of Galileo’s experiments with projectiles, his knowledge of the moon’s orbit, and this fallen apple. The result was the Theory of Gravity.

Johnny Appleseed made no contribution to Physics, but he is a well loved American folk hero just the same. Born in 1774 as John Chapman, he developed a great love for apples. He dedicated his life to pomology, (the cultivation of apple trees.) He worked tirelessly, starting many nurseries throughout Indiana, Ohio, and all along the Allegeny River. His legendary nickname brings to mind a vision of a barefoot man with a sack of apple seeds slung over his shoulder throwing the pips out as he walked the countryside. However, being a gifted pomologist, John Chapman would have known that planting apple trees from their seed was not an effective way to spread his love for this fruit.

Legends, symbols, and myths aside, apples have a history traceable by archeologists and historians. To find the origin of the first apple tree, some point to Southwestern Asia between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea. Others point to carbon dated seeds that were found in Antolia. These are believed to be from 6500 B.C. Still others have found fossilized imprints of apple seeds dating to the Neolithic period in England.

Wherever the true origin of the first apple trees may be found, one thing is certain, man has always been less than a pip’s throw away. Henry David Thoreau once wrote, “It is remarkable how closely the history of the apple tree is connected with that of man.” He remarked that everywhere man migrates he takes his orchard with him.

But perhaps he meant more. As another author has put it, “From a few natural crab apple species, the varieties of apples increased to thousands, very much like the diversity and richness of the cultures and civilizations all over the world.” The first apple trees were types of crab apple trees. These bear a small sour fruit. Through an unknown number of years, these sour little fruits were coaxed by man to be the plump and sweet fruit we know today.

Ancient Greeks were very familiar with the apple tree. Homer mentions apples in the Odyssey (circa 850 B.C.) By the 7th century B.C., apples were considered to be very valuable to the Greeks. To celebrate their wedding night, a couple was allowed to share only one apple. It has been suggested that in ancient Greece it was easy to catch a woman -if she could catch an apple. The man’s toss was the proposal, her catch was the acceptance. One of the most famous Greeks is Hippocrates. He lived around 400 B.C. Considered the father of medicine, he was well acquainted with apples. He said, “Let your food be your medicine and let your medicine be your food.” His most favored prescriptions for his patients included apples, dates and barley mush.

It was the Romans however, that are credited with the perfection of the fruit and its spread throughout Europe. In order to have developed the fruit we know today, cross-breeding had to take place to bring out the sweetness. To preserve the new varieties of fruit they had developed, Roman pomologists employed the technique called “grafting”. Without grafting, trees planted from seeds or pips, as they are sometimes called, eventually revert back to their sour ancestors. Pliny the Elder, a Roman statesman, wrote “Historia naturales,” around 23 A.D. At that time he describes 37 different varieties of cultivated apples, and notes how farmers would auction the fruit on the trees.

When the Romans invaded Britian in 55 B.C., they found the locals drinking apple cider. This was most likely from a more tart variety of apple than the Roman people had been enjoying. Like their herbs and medicines, the Roman’s brought their sweet varieties of apples and orchards with them. During their occupation, officers were given lands to entice them to stay in England. Many accepted, and on those lands they planted orchards.

In 597 A.D., long after the Roman armies had left Britain, Christianity was reestablished in England. At this time, monks were predominantly responsible for planting orchards and tending them at their monasteries, along with their herb gardens. “Encyclopedia” (printed in 1470 A.D.) by Bartholomeus Angelicus, mentions the value of the apple tree as did many of the old Saxon manuscripts. “Malus the Appyll Tree… is gracious in syght and in taste and vertuous in medicyne…”

Fruit cultivation took a hit during the Black Death. This decline was reversed by Henry the VIII. In 1533, one of the king’s fruitiers named Richard Harris, imported apple trees from France. He worked to create new varieties with the trees from France. One of his missions was to reestablish orchards to supply England with trees and fruit.

When the colonists came to the New World, they brought with them a variety of apples. Cider production records from the year 1635 prove the value placed on the apple tree by the settlers. A Mr. Wolcott of Connecticut produced a record 500 hogshead of cider that year. This is roughly the equivalent of 55,000 gallons. It takes about 36 apples to make one gallon of cider. Orchard owners must have enjoy considerable success.

America’s oldest apple tree is believed to have been the one planted by Peter Stuyvesant in 1647. He was the governor of “New Amsterdam” at the time he planted the tree in his Manhattan orchard. It was still bearing fruit 219 years later when it was run over by a derailed train in 1866.

Malus pumila known to many as the “Golden Delicious” apple was discovered in 1905. Anderson Mullins was tending his apple orchard at his farm in Clay County, West Virginia that year when he spotted a tree bearing the huge yellow fruit. It had spontaneously appeared from seed. Over the years he watched this tree as it continued to produce the sweet, plump fruit. Finally in 1913, he sent a sample to the Stark Brothers nursery in Missouri where he had bought his stock of apple tree seedlings. Although red apples ruled at the time, Paul Stark Sr. was soon converted. He later bought the rights to the tree and named it Golden Delicious. In 1972, the “Golden Delicious” apple was named the official state fruit of West Virginia and is grown all over the world today.

Apples have come a long way since their beginning. Between 7500 and 10,000 varieties are cultivated today. The leading producer is China, followed by the United States, Turkey, Poland, and Italy. New varieties have been developed that do well in warmer climates without the need of a two month dormant period. Growers are taking advantage of the seasons all over the world in order to supply fresh apples year round. It is no wonder that the apple is the most well known and well loved fruit in many nations of the world.


The taxonomic hierarchy for our delicious apple is as follows: Plantae, Tracheobionta, Spermatophyta, Magnobophyta, Magnobiopsida, Rosdae, Rosales, Rosaceae, Malus P. , Malus pumila. From the apples taxonomy we learn that it is a member of the Plant Kingdom with veins, produces seeds and flowers in the two seeded leaf class. It is member of the Subclass Rosidae, in the Order of Rosales. Apples are members of the Rose family. Malus pumila has the common name of “paradise apple.” Others know Malus pumila as “Golden Delicious.”

Malus pumila grows wild in temperature zones usually between 30 degree and 60 degree latitude either north or south. The ideal location for an apple orchard is on the tops of rolling hills to protect the blossoms from frost damage. An orchard setting is generally needed because the tree cannot self-pollinate. Apple trees with similar growing seasons are grown together to allow for cross-pollination to be performed by bees.

The cultivation of apples is called pomology. New trees are grown from cuttings, called scions, which are grafted to a strong root stock. Apples are not generally grown from seeds because each contains, a “randomly divided half of the mothers chromosomes and the same for the father’s (pollen donor) “ This means a planted seed is not likely to resemble its parent but instead will revert back to a previous wild species or become a new type of apple tree altogether. These new trees produce their first fruit after four to five years of growing. Apple blossoms appear late in spring after the danger of frost, around April in the temperate zone. At first the blossoms appear pink but fade to white when fully open. The fruit becomes ripe in fall due to the efforts of 50 leaves photosynthesizing to produce energy to make one fruit. It is generally accepted that the larger the fruit, the sweeter the taste.

Malus pumila is not a tall tree like oaks and maples. They may reach up to 40 feet tall. The lifespan of the apple tree is sometimes over 100 years. The profile of an apple tree is distinct with its squatty, gnarled trunk and rigid, crooked branches.

If you have no orchard of your own, the best place to obtain fresh apples is from a farmers market. They will less likely be waxed with paraffin or contain chemical pesticides commonly used in the commercial growing process. To choose an apple ensure it is firm and blemish free. Refrigeration is recommended. Apples can ripen up to ten times faster at room temperature


The main constituents that contribute to the apples vast usefulness and great taste are hard to narrow down. Over twenty have been documented in the unpeeled fruit alone to contribute a vast amount of biological activities. Those with known biological activities located in either the fruit or peel or both are: Alpha-Linolenic-Acid, Asparagine, D-Categin, Isoqurctrin, Hyperoside, Ferulic-Acid, Farnesene, Neoxathin, Phosphatidyl-Choline, Reynoutrin, Sinapic-Acid, Caffeic-Acid, Chlorogenic-Acid, P-Hydroxy-Benzoic-Acid, P-Coumaric-Acid, Avicularin, Lutein, Quercitin, Rutin, Ursolic-Acid, Protocatechuic-Acid, and Silver. From Dr. James Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Database website, we find that in addition to these phytochemicals the whole fruit contains many more for which the biological activity is not yet known. Many of the benefits of the apple come from enzymes and flavinoids.

The “Nutrition Almanac” by Lavon J. Dunne gives us further nutritional information on the apple. In one medium apple weighing about five ounces we find the following constituents of vitamins and minerals; Vitamin A, B1, B2, and B6, Niacin, Pantothenic acid, Folic acid, Vitamin C and Vitamin E, Calcium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Phosphorus, Pottassium, Selenium, Sodium, and Zinc. The fats in the apple contain no cholesterol. Instead they are a blend of lipids, saturated, unsaturated and monounsaturated fats. In addition to fats the apple contains the other macronutrients of proteins, and carbohydrates. Other phytochemicals include; Tryptophan, Threonine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lycine, Methionine, Cystine, Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Valine, Argenine, Histidine, Alanine, Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid, Glycine, Proline, and Serine. Trace amounts of Boron and Cobalt are found in apples.

There are four to five grams of soluble and insoluble fiber per apple. This fiber is from cellulose, pectin and lignin. The sugars of fructose and sucrose make up about 9% to 12% of the fruit and give it its sweet taste, while the tartness comes from the malic, tartaric, and citric acids. The tannins, making up 0.2%, give it an astringent cooling and thirstquenching effect. Finally, Amygdaline, a naturally occurring cyanide is found in the seeds


The cancer fighting qualities contained in a fresh, unpeeled apple are impressive. There are numerous studies whose findings are promising to anyone seeking to prevent or treat cancer.

Lung cancer may be at the top of the list. The findings of the Nurses’ Health Study revealed apples were one of the fruits associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer. This was found to be more significant among the women rather than the men. A 40% to 50% decrease in lung cancer was found in participants of a study in Hawaii. Of both men and women, those who ate more apples, onions, and white grapefruit saw the most reduction of the cancer. In a Finnish study, apples were the only specific foods that were inversely related to lung cancer risk. Apples have an anti-tumor action. This was evident in the Zutphen Elderly study. Reduced incidences of tumors in the respiratory tract were detected in those who received more flavinoids from fresh fruit, like the apple.

Other promising news for the lungs means better over-all health. Lung function increases with apple consumption. A study of men and women in the Netherlands indicated an increase of lung function in those who ate more apples. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, often a result of smoking cigarettes, was reduced while pulmonary function increased. These results were especially evident in those who ate an apple five times a week. Other pulmonary complaints were decreased also. Incidents of asthma and its cohort -allergies were reduced. Both were shown to be inversely affected by consuming fresh apples.

Lung cancer was not the only form of cancer worked on by apples. Many of the same studies previously cited proved apple’s value with other forms. Among these are; prostate cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, and leukemia. A list of known biological activities associated with apples include: anticancer, antileukemic, antimutagenic, antimetastic,
antineoplastic (stomach), antiproliferant, and antitumor of the skin, pancreas, stomach breast and bladder.

In addition to important cancer fighting constituents, apples will aid the digestive system and related diseases. First of all, apples fight obesity. The fiber in the form of pectin is just one factor that affects weight. The pectin has and amphoteric action. This means it is either laxative or antidiarrheal, according to the body’s needs.

The malic and tartaric acids contribute to the apple’s usefulness as a digestive aid. These acids keep food from fermenting in the stomach, allowing for better digestion. The apple itself is digested completely with in 85 minutes. The acids and enzymes that help it to be digested so quickly also aid in digesting other foods.

Pectin can interfere with the body’s ability to absorb dietary fats. Obesity is a huge factor in Type II diabetes. Blood sugar is also a factor. Pectin aids in the reduction of blood sugar. So among apple’s antiobesity, nutritive and digestive qualities is revealed its antidiabetic action.

Apples are cleaners. Among some of the reported actions are benefits for those exposed to radiation. It has been reported that apples are beneficial in binding radioactive residues and helping to excrete them from the body. Apples can also help remove toxic metals like lead from the body.

Maybe one of the most important cleaning actions provided by apples has to do with cholesterol. The pectin, as well as other constituents, play a role in reducing the bad cholesterol in the body. This is good news for blood vessels and the heart. Because apple is also a hemetic, it can build the blood as well as cleanse it.

A reduced risk of cardiovascular disease has been associated with apple consumption. In the Women’s Health Study, it was found that those whose diets were very high in flavonoids, especially from apples and onions, had a 35% reduction in risk of cardiovascular events. The Finnish study found a lower risk of thromibic stroke among apple consumers. The Zutphen Study concluded “flavinoid intake was strongly correlated with a decreased mortality from heart disease in elderly men and also negatively correlated with myocardial infarction.”

This same study showed apple’s constituents to have an effect on cerebrovascular health. The apple provides antioxidants for the body. Oxidative damage on cells by free radicals contributes to age related brain disorders. Alzheimers and senility are examples. Apples have been cited as antialzheimerian. A study conducted by the University of Massachusetts suggests that whether the oxidation is caused by normal metabolism, dietary insufficiencies or genetic deficiencies, apples can help.

The apple also contains qualities that help prevent the eye and nerve damage associated with diabetes. This happens when too much sugar alcohol, called sorbitol gets trapped in nerve and eye cells. Apples have the quality of being an Aldose Reductase inhibitor. This quality may be means of delaying this common effect of diabetes.

Apples have and ACE inhibitor quality. This aspect helps relax arteries, lower blood pressure and improves the pumping ability of the heart.

Most of the apples medicinal qualities treat chronic illness. ‘An apple a day’ is an important adage to follow in order to enjoy its effects in these areas. There are so many more benefits inherent in the apple. One source cites; Antianemic, antibacterial, antiinflamitory, antimenopauseal, antiCrohn’s, antiedemic, anti PMS, antiseptic, antiyeast, antiviral, capillary protective, hepatoprotective, diuretic, fungicide, nematicided (round worms), and neuroprotective are a few not mentioned before. Still other sources assign tonic, astringent and hypocholeteraemic, disinfectant, cardiac stimulant and cephalic.


Apples are a safe food to use in nearly all instances. They are nontoxic, not habit-forming and to my knowledge they are within the law to consume. A few cautions may be considered for the overly cautious.

Apples are difficult to grow without the use of pesticides and herbicides. There are several pests and diseases that enjoy apples as much as we all do. Apples grown in the United States rank among the top 12 foods most contaminated by pesticides with a score of 124 (200 = most toxic). There are organic growers out there, and their numbers are growing. Seek fresh organic apples if possible. This will reduce the risk of ingesting any unwanted chemicals.

Consuming fruits in excessive amounts is believed to cause griping pain or diarrhea. This may be true for some unripe or sour varieties. This should not be a concern with Malus pimila. If there is any concern, however, this can be avoided by thoroughly chewing each bite before swallowing. This will start the digestive process. In “Back to Eden” by Jethro Kloss we learn that time on an exclusive apple diet is safe and will greatly benefit the body. But Kloss warned that “ordinary apple cider is not fit to be used.”

The main caution with apples is the over consumption of apple seeds. Amygdaline is cyanide that occurs naturally in the seeds. It has the capability of poisoning, as one man found out. “There is a famous, sad case of an American man who saved up all his apple pips until he had about a cup of them. One day- for a reason that will always remain a mystery- he ate all the pips he collected and died as a result.” The seeds are safe in small amounts. If you plan to eat apple seeds, eat the apple, too. In other words, consuming one apple with all its seeds at the same time is safe.


When it comes to apples, there are not very many formulas lurking around with a whole fresh unpeeled apple in them. The apple is the formula. Its many constituents make a magical brew for good health, without needing help from any other substance. However, different forms of the apple show up in formulas now and then.

Apple juice in the freshly pressed form can be used countless ways for elixirs. Any powdered herb that is difficult to take for an adult or child can be mixed with apple juice to help it go down. In a formula designed for children, apple juice is combined with the berries of Alder, (Black prinos verticullatus). This makes a pleasant tasting and effective elixir to expel worms.

Dating back to at least the 1600’s, there is a recipe for an ointment for rough skin. This is made with apple pulp which has been scraped from the apple. It is then combined with lard and rosewater.

Most of apple’s use is as the single ingredient. Even with a juice fast, apple juice is to be consumed exclusively for the three days with the exception of the morning prune juice. In his book, “Back to Eden,” Jethro Kloss recommends an exclusive diet of fresh apples to do the body much good.

Don’t fault the apple as unfriendly. It can play nice with others if it has to, but does much better as an only child.


How can we make use of this wonderful fruit? What are the best applications and dosages to employ for our needs? The best use of an apple’s goodness is to eat it fresh and unpeeled at least once a day. There are no set limits on the number of properly masticated Malus Primila one can consume in a day because an apple can be eaten anytime there is a hunger for one.

Apples are suitable for the very young and the very old. However, they may need to be peeled and scraped to form a mush similar to uncooked apple sauce if the person hasn’t sufficient teeth or chewing skills. For teething babies, dried apple slices are recommended in place of a teething ring.

If the whole fruit won’t do, the freshly pressed juice may be used. Each mouthful should be “chewed” or swished in the mouth. This mixes the juice with the saliva and begins the digestive process. This is helpful for anyone with a blood sugar related illness. Properly swishing should also help one avoid any possible stomach upset.

The juice may be used to form an elixir. This is useful when there is a need to disguise the taste of an herb. Simply mix the powdered herb in a glass of apple juice and drink. The dosage would be determined by the herb and size of the person.

Possibly one of the best ways, aside from an apple a day, to use apple juice for a juice cleanse. The instructions for following a three-day cleanse or fast are simple. On the morning of each day, the first juice to consume is 16 ounces of prune juice. One half hour after the prune juice, eight ounces of freshly pressed apple juice is consumed. This is done by swishing the juice in the mouth before swallowing. Distilled water can be had one half hour after the apple juice. Juice and water are alternated throughout the day until at least two quarts of juice are consumed. One or two tablespoons of olive oil should also be taken three times a day during the three days. The olive oil will lubricate the liver and bile ducts and aid in elimination. The recommended use of the three day cleanse is once a month.

Further applications that involve the apple include making a poultice. The fruit can be made into a poultice in the following ways. Scrape the fresh pulp from the fruit and apply it to the needed area until the soothing or cooling effect is accomplished. Rotten apple pulp can be used as a poultice in the same way. Additionally, one that has been baked to a mushy consistency would make a suitable poultice as well.

Apple cider vinegar is another form of using apples. Raw apple cider vinegar purchased from a health food store is recommended. Two to three times per day it can be made into a beverage. By adding a tablespoon of apple cider vinegar to a cup of distilled water and two teaspoons of raw honey it becomes like a tart beverage.

As a hair rinse, apple cider vinegar is also useful. To make a hair rinse, simply mix the vinegar with water 50/50. Rinse this mixture through damp, freshly shampooed hair. Massage it into the scalp and rinse thoroughly with clean water. Alternately, this is an ideal body wash.


Apple is a word that I can’t even think or say without feeling instantly cheered. This is partly due to the taste and partly due to the nostalgia. When I lost my two front teeth as a child, I had a hard time eating my favorite snack. My mother taught me to break the apple pieces off in my mouth using my side teeth. This is a very noisy and sloppy sounding way to eat an apple. My mother deeply regrets teaching me to eat my apples this way. I have been perfecting this for nearly three decades.

I get chuckle from remembering the pitiful looking apple tree that grew near our chicken coup. One year a nest of yellow jackets set up shop in a hollow portion of its trunk. It wasn’t the menacing presence of these stinging insects that nearly killed the tree, rather, the gallon of gasoline and matches applied by my older brother. As most twelve year old boys would believe, this was a perfectly safe and effective form of pest control.

Apples also bring to mind my grandmother, Ruby. As a child she would climb out onto the branches of the apple tree at the old farm. This was at the behest of her grandmother to retrieve the ripe fruit. “Cut it across the bloom”, she would tell her. Then Ruby would scrape the pulp for her because she had no teeth. This same grandmother taught me to make a hair rinse of apple cider vinegar for my dark hair. She said it would keep it dark. Her hair stayed shiny and nearly all black even up until her death at age 91.

Like all good and trustworthy people I have loved apples since I can remember. However, for a time I wasn’t willing to eat them. As a teen and young adult, eating apples seemed to interfere with my diet. It was a diet, fed intravenously, of chocolate, pizza and cheesy pasta. When I would eat an apple I would experience cramping and pain in my abdomen. This must have been due to an actual digestive process. Digestion was not something I did well as a teen.

All joking aside, I can report of health benefits I have received through apples. I have done several three day juice fasts. My experience was positive. I began to loose weight- down twenty pounds to date- which I know is a result of my juice cleansing. The cleanses helped me kick my milk and dairy addictions. It helped me desire better foods. I can easily tolerate large amounts of fresh fruits and vegetables where I could not before. I can breathe easily now, with no more stuffy nose when I wake up. The added energy, especially just after a fast, is always a blessing. The benefits for my mind and spirit are the biggest reasons I continue to do juice cleansing. It seems there is an inexplicable hope and excitement in all that I do. During the quiet, low-key days of fasting, I have received my most treasured inspirations. Apples are the first fruit recommended for babies. This is good advice for anyone who finds themselves at the beginning, regardless of age, on a path to improved health.


Christopher, John R., The School of Natural Healing, 25th Anniversary Edition, Utah, Christopher Publications, Inc., 2001

Furhman, Joel, Eat to Live The Revolutionary Way for Fast and Sustained Weight Loss, 1st paperback edition, New York, Little, Brown and Company, 2005

Kloss, Jethro, Back to Eden, Revised and Updated Edition, Wisconsin, Lotus Press, 1999

Hutchens, Alma R., Indian Herbology of North America, Fifth Edition, Michigan, MERCO, 1974

Duke, James A., The Green Pharmacy the Ultimate Compendium of Natural Remedies from the World’s Foremost Authority on Healing Herbs, paperback edition, New York, St. Martin’s Press, 1998

Grieve, Mrs. M., A Modern Herbal, Dover edition, Volume I, New York, 1971

Elpel, Thomas J., Botany in a Day Thomas J. Elpel’s Herbal Field Guide to Plant Families, 4th edition, Montana, HOPS Press, 2000

Dunne, Lavon J., Nutrition Almanac, 5th edition, New York, McGraw-Hill, 2002

Boyer, Jeanell and Lui, Rui Hai, Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits, 12 May 2004, BioMed Central, online, www.arabmedmag.com, May 2005

Fraser, Anna, Apple, online, www.the-tree.orguk, May 2005

Marra, John L., “The Greatest Apple in the World”: Striking Gold in the Clay County Hills, Fall Issue, Goldenseal, West Virginia, the Division of Culture and History of the State of West Virginia, 1995

A History of Growing Apples in the UK, Blackthorn Cider, online, www.dryblackthorncider.com, may2005

Vanderveer, Chelsie, Why must apples be grafted?, April 2003, Weird Plants Archive, online, www.killerplants.com, May 2005

Apples, Innvista, online, www.innvista.com, May 2005

Apples and More, University of Illinois Extension, online www.urbanext.uiuc.edu, May 2005

Apple, Everything, online, www.everything2.com, May 2005

Felter,Harvey Wickes and Lloyd, John Uri, Kings American Dispensory, online, www.ibiblio.org, May 2005

An Apple a Day Keeps the Doctor Away, Vegetarians in Paradise, online, www.vegparadise.com, May 2005

Duke, Jim, Malus domisticas, Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases, online, www.sun.ars-grin.gov, May 2005

Apples Improving Memory and Learning, April 2004, Journal Pioneer, online, archives.foodsafetynetwork.ca/ffnet, May 2005

Pumping up with Apples, Vermont Apple News, online, www.vermontapples.org, May 2005

Apple phytochemicals fight cancer, July 2000, San Diego Earth Times, online, www.sdearthtimes.com, May 2005

Apples the Healthy Snack, New England Apples, online, www.apples-ne.com, May 2005

Apples Keep Your Family Healthy, Washington Apple Commission, online,
www.bestapples.com, May 2005

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Benefits of apple cider vinegar

Apple Cider Vinegar

Vinegar is one of many foods created by bacteria and yeasts. Most vinegars start from crushed fruit or grains and exposed first to yeasts and later to bacteria. The yeast ferments the sugars in the fruit to create alcohol. Then, specific bacteria break down the alcohol to form acetic acid, the main component of vinegar.
Vinegar can be made from any fruit, many grains, and even wood chips! Starches are first converted to sugars to begin the fermentation process. The source will determine the vinegar result.

For instance, from apples, we get hard cider first and then apple cider vinegar. Grapes are made into wine and then wine vinegar. Balsamic vinegar is specially made from Trebbiano or Lambrusco grapes under delicate conditions. Hops and barley are made into beer and then into malt vinegar (the starch converts to maltose). Rice is made into sake or rice wine and then rice vinegar. Distilled white vinegar is the most familiar and processed from common grains. Other vinegars can be made from coconuts, pineapples, cactus fruits, and herbs along with a variety of sugar sources – molasses, sorghum, honey, beets, potatoes, melons, or maple syrup to get the process started.


The acids in apple cider vinegar improve digestion and deter the growth of disease-causing bacteria in the digestive tract. The minerals (potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium) bind to the acids and neutralize them when the digestive tract needs to be more alkaline.

Acetic acid is formed only by the Acetobacter family of bacteria. These bacteria are found everywhere in food, water, and soil and is naturally produced as fruits spoil. In humans and other primates, acetic acid is a component of the female vagina, where it serves as an antibacterial.

The acetic acid content of vinegar will determine its use and varies according to the fruit or grain used to start with. Rice wine vinegar is quite mild with a low acid level making it a good choice for salad dressings. On the other end of the scale is distilled white vinegar which is highly acidic and suitable for making pickles. All other vinegars fall in between.

Malic acid, in particular, is the main digestive acid found in apple cider vinegar as well as in our own body cells. It has many health benefits, including boosting immunity, maintaining good oral health, reducing the risk of toxic heavy metals, and promoting good skin tone. Its most significant contribution is the ability to stimulate the metabolism and increase energy production.

The Mother

Homemade, or good quality vinegar, will have a thick, filmy substance floating in it. This is called the mother, which consists of cellulose as a result of interaction between the bacteria and the alcohol. Because the mother is a concentration of Acetobacter bacteria, it cannot be disturbed during the process and must float on the top to feed on oxygen. If it is moved, it will sink to the bottom and die thereby halting the vinegar process.

At one time, it was thought that this substance acted similar to a yogurt starter, but thoughts have changed. It is now known that the mother is the result of a process rather than the initiator, changing alcohol into vinegar. Since there are countless members of this family, no one particular strain can be counted on to make only one kind of vinegar.

While it may take several months for homemade vinegar to complete, industrial vinegar has speeded up the process by adding more surface area for oxygen to reach the bacteria. Unfortunately, vinegar manufacturers usually filter out the mother and any sediment to make their product more aesthetically pleasing. Doing so robs the product of its healthful qualities, which can be compared to refined flour versus whole grain flour.

Making Your Own

Fill a sterilized wide-mouth jar about two-thirds full of hard apple cider. For larger quantities, use a large crock. Hard apple cider has already been fermented and ready to go into the next stage which is the making of vinegar. The cider found in grocery stores will not work.

Add a little unpasteurized, organic apple cider vinegar with the mother (sold at many health food stores or online).

Cover with a cheesecloth to allow oxygen to feed the bacteria without insects also getting in. Allow to sit for about 4 weeks in a dark place at room temperature. Do not disturb because the mother has to float. If disturbed, it could sink to the bottom where it will decompose; thus destroying what could have been vinegar.

As cider is transformed into vinegar, the alcohol content drops while the acidity rises. The only real way to tell if the process is complete is to taste it. When ready, there should be no taste of alcohol. A litmus paper test should give the proper reading of between 5 and 6 per cent acidity. Do not try to make pickles with it unless you are very sure that the acidity is at least 4 per cent.

Apple Cider Vinegar Nutrition

Apple cider vinegar is a concentration of acids, flavonoids, polyphenols, pectin, enzymes, minerals, and amino acids that form during fermentation. Scientists have found about 90 different substances in apple cider vinegar, including 13 kinds of carbolic acids, 4 aldehydes, 20 ketones, 18 types of alcohols, 8 ethyl acetates and much more.

Nutrients include:

Acids – acetic, isobutyric, lactic, malic, and propionic

Amino acids – the number and amount depends on its source with some having antioxidant properties.

Beta-carotene – helps prevent cancer and protects the body against damage caused by exposure to toxic chemicals

Boron – is found abundantly in fresh apples. It is a key mineral that assists other bone-building minerals also found in apple cider vinegar like calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus.

Enzymes – are built from protein molecules and have many duties in the body. Those suffering from indigestion, gas, or bloating lack the essential digestive enzymes needed to digest food properly. Fresh apples are loaded with enzymes, which increase as vinegar is made. This is why it is important to buy apple cider vinegar with the mother. That way you know the precious enzymes and nutrients have not been destroyed in processing.

Magesium – is needed for bone health as well as for proper muscle function, including the heart where it can strengthen the beat and help normalize blood pressure.

Pectin – is a soluble fibre that can absorb water, toxins, and cholesterol in the digestive tract. Apple cider vinegar contains valuable pectin from the apples and will go a long way in improving heart health and regularity.

Potassium – is stripped from processed foods and replaced by sodium. To make matters worse, caffeine and sugar take what little is left in the diet because both act as diuretics, flushing valuable nutrients out of the body. Apple cider vinegar is an excellent source of potassium, giving roughly 100 mg per 3.5 ounces.

Tannins – are released from the crushed cells of the apple. Tannins are the red-gold plant chemicals that give plants and various fruits and vegetables their astringency. They are effective antioxidants that help to prevent spoilage.

Other – During both fermentation processes, many new plant chemicals are formed. As yet, many remain unidentified and no doubt will add to apple cider vinegar’s growing list of health-giving substances.

Apple Cider Vinegar Benefits

TONIC – 1-2 tsp apple cider vinegar in 1 glass filtered water. Drink before or during meals 3 times a day.

Acne – Mix 2 tablespoons apple cider vinegar with a cup of water and dab on blemishes several times a day. This will help dry them out and curb infection. You can follow this treatment with a little aloe vera gel to help prevent scarring.

Aging – Premature aging can be a sign of an inefficient digestive process. Drinking a little apple cider vinegar before each meal can help improve digestion. Taking the TONIC on a regular basis will improve digestion and metabolism, resulting in better skin tone, less joint pain, improved memory, and a trimmer figure.

Allergies – Regular use of apple cider vinegar helps strengthen the immune system and improve metabolism.

Arthritis – Although there is no definitive research on this, many arthritics attest to its effectiveness. Dosages vary from taking 2 teaspoons a day to 10 with water after a meal until the pain subsides. Arthritis is often aggravated by food allergies. The most common culprits are nightshade vegetables (potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, and tobacco), wheat, dairy, corn, and citrus. By eliminating one at a time, people can find out which one may be affecting them.

Asthma – Sipping a glass of water containing a tablespoon or more of apple cider vinegar often helps.

Athlete’s foot – Soak the feet twice a day in half water and half apple cider vinegar. Applying the vinegar directly to the affected areas several times a day also works well.

Bladder – Patricia Bragg recommends this healing and cleansing drink to help overcome bladder and kidney infections: 2 tbsp. cornsilk to 1 quart distilled water or marshmallow herbal tea. Drink 1 cup 3 times a day, adding ½ tsp apple cider vinegar and 1 tsp buckwheat honey each time. Adding a little apple cider vinegar to organic, non-sweetened cranberry juice also works well.

Bleeding – Vinegar has long been used to treat wounds and stop bleeding. It is believed that the adrenaline-like effect of apple cider vinegar helps to coagulate the blood. A cottonball soaked in apple cider vinegar and placed in the bleeding nostril is more effective than a plain cottonball.

Blood pressure – Take the TONIC to gain the benefits of the potassium in the apple cider vinegar. Potassium helps balance the body and lower the blood pressure.

Bones – Apple cider vinegar contains minerals (magnesium, manganese, and silicon) which contribute to good bone health. It also contains the trace mineral boron which supports the metabolism of calcium and magnesium. Several good quality calcium and magnesium manufacturers are recognizing this and adding the mineral to their supplements. Boron also helps elevate levels of the hormones estrogen and testosterone which help keep bones strong.

Bruises – Dissolve and warm 1 tsp salt in ½ cup apple cider vinegar. Apply as a compress to the affected area.

Burns – Use apple cider vinegar full strength to any burn, including sunburns.

Cancer – Apple cider vinegar contains a number of substances that can help protect against cancer, including beta carotene and pectin that help fight against free radicals. One interesting study published in Lancet was done by researchers at Johns Hopkins University and at the University of Zimbabwe. Nurse midwives screened more than 11,000 women for cervical cancer, using both acetic acid (the prime ingredient in apple cider vinegar) and the traditional pap smear. They found that the vinegar test picked up more precancerous or cancerous cells than the pap smear.

Cancer sores – Rinse the mouth with 1 tsp apple cider vinegar in 1 glass of water several times a day.

Candida – As a douche for vaginal yeast infections, mix 2 tbsp apple cider vinegar and 1 quart warm water and use twice a day until the burning and itching stop. Adding 1 cup of the vinegar to bath water also brings relief and toning the skin and helps to heal other skin problems.

Cataracts – Studies have shown that diets high in fat and salt increase the risk for cataracts. Since apple cider vinegar helps metabolize proteins which, in turn, improve fat metabolism, it should be added to the diet to lower the risk of cataracts. Not only that but apple cider vinegar also includes the antioxidants (beta-carotene, C, and E) known to fight against the free radicals formed in the body that contribute to cataracts.

Chicken pox – The discomfort of the itching pox can be relieved by applying apple cider vinegar full strength to the affected areas and by adding 1 cup to a warm bath.

Cholesterol – Taking the TONIC is an effective way of adding pectin to the diet. Pectin is a soluble fibre which absorbs fats and cholesterol and removes them from the body. The vinegar also contains amino acids which neutralize harmful LDL cholesterol.

Cold sores – Cold sore pain and duration can be lessened by applying apple cider vinegar full-strength to the sores several times a day.

Colds – During a cold, the body is more alkaline. Therefore, taking the TONIC several times a day at the onset of a cold can help raise the acidity level to kill off the harmful viruses and boost the body’s immune system. Nasal congestion can be relieved by adding apple cider vinegar to a steaming bowl of water and inhaling the vapors. This will not only open the passages but the vinegar will help kill the viruses or bacteria causing the problem.

Constipation – Constipation is caused by a poor diet and a reduction in digestive acids that deminish with age. Along with improving the diet by adding more fibre, apple cider vinegar taken with meals can also help with regularity.

Corns – Soak feet in a warm bath containing ½ cup apple cider vinegar. Rub the corns with a pumice stone and apple vinegar full strength. Cover with a bandage overnight. Apply the vinegar and a bandage again in the morning. Repeat until the corn has dissolved.

Coughs – One of the oldest home remedies is honey and lemon juice, but using apple cider vinegar instead of lemon juice also works well.

Cramps – Muscle cramps can be an imbalance of nutrients in the body, especially vitamin E, potassium, calcium, or magnesium. Taking apple cider vinegar daily will help supply as well as metabolize these nutrients from other sources.

Cuts and abrasions – Applying apple cider vinegar to superficial wounds is an age-old practice. It will not only cut down on the risk of infection; but it will also speed the rate of healing.

Dandruff – Use apple cider vinegar full strength on the scalp to destroy the bacteria or fungus that is causing the problem. Apply to the scalp, rub in, and leave on for half an hour before shampooing the hair.

Deoderant – A good diet and regular cleansing will go a long way in reducing body odor; but for added protection, dip a cloth in apple cider vinegar and wipe underarms with it.

Depression – Although depression can range from the mild to the severe, it is a serious metabolic disorder. Apple cider vinegar can help cleanse the body by stimulating the liver to get rid of toxins that might be contributing to the problem. It also helps metabolize the proteins needed to influence production of seratonin.

Diaper rash – Apply half apple cider vinegar and half water to a diaper rash or any other type of rash. It also tones the skin.

Diarrhea – Taking the daily TONIC can help get rid of the micro-organism causing the problem and improve digestion that might also be a contributing factor. Some people resort to over-the-counter use of Kaopectate. The “pectate” part is simply pectin. Much cheaper and more natural versions can be found in fruits and vegetables and of course, apple cider vinegar. Persistent diarrhea, however, requires medical attention.

Digestion – As mentioned many times, apple cider vinegar improves digestion especially in metabolizing proteins. It enhances the action of hydrochloric acid (HCL – which deminishes with age) and digestive enzymes. Digestion begins in the mouth where the apple cider vinegar stimulates the acid receptors on the tongue to produce saliva that begins the breakdown of carbohydrates. Taking apple cider vinegar and water before each meal can help improve the digestive process.

Dizziness – An alkaline environment can produce dizziness and a number of other conditions. Some people have obtained relief from dizziness by taking the TONIC on a regular basis.

Earaches – While waiting for antibiotics to work, should one be needed, put some apple cider vinegar on a cotton ball and place in the ear. This can help kill off any microbe that might be causing the problem as well as relieving pain.

Eczema – Use half apple cider vinegar and half water to relieve the itching and dryness.

Fatigue – The amino acids in the apple cider vinegar can help neutralize the build-up of lactic acid in the bloodstream that occurs after exercise and stress. It is also thought that regular use of the TONIC can help prevent fatigue.

Fever – There is an age-old remedy of wrapping the calves with towels that have been soaked in 1 part apple cider vinegar and 3 parts water. This seems to have helped reduce fevers. Resoak and reapply as the towels dry out and until the fever is reduced, all the while keeping the patient warm, of course.

Flatulence – Stomach gas is a sign of poor digestion, often caused by the incomplete digestion of carbohydrates. Sipping the TONIC before meals can help relieve the problem.

Food poisoning – Traveling to other countries often brings on digestive upsets. Traveling with liquids can cause other problems. However, apple cider vinegar is available in capsules. Taking them every time you eat can help avoid digestive problems and kill any microbes that cause food poisoning.

Gall bladder – Apple cider vinegar can be an integral part of what is called a gall bladder flush. There are many variations to this flush, which is taken over a period of 2 to 3 days followed by drinking straight olive oil. However, this should only be attempted if small gallstones are present and even then, should be supervised by a health care professional. Consuming apple cider vinegar on a regular basis can help avoid gallstones altogether.

Gums – Bleeding gums are often relieved by using the TONIC as a mouth rinse. The action of the vinegar dissolves plaque and fight oral infections. It can also dissolve tooth enamel, so swish well with water after a vinegar rinse.

Hair – Add ¼ cup apple cider vinegar to 1 quart warm water and use as a final rinse or for loosening tangles. It will restore lustre and shine to dull, lifeless hair. The mixture will also help fight scalp conditions like dryness, itchiness, and flaking, especially if caused by a fungus. For hair colouring: If using a vegetable-based hair dye or henna, rinsing with apple cider vinegar holds the colour longer. In addition, rinsing the hair with apple cider vinegar before a colouring or perm process will remove any residue from shampoos and make the dye or perm take a better hold.

Headaches – Headaches are often the result of the body being too alkaline. The fastest way to gain relief is to try a little apple cider aromatherapy by breathing in the fumes of simmered water and apple cider vinegar. Adding the vinegar to a vapourizer can also help.

Head lice – Over-the-counter head lice preparations are very toxic and often are not as effective as more natural approaches. Try rinsing the hair with full strength apple cider vinegar. Do not wash out. Wrap in a scarf and leave until the next shampoo. Do this for 2 or 3 days in order to kill all the adult lice. Then for the next few days, examine each strand of hair in the sunlight for eggs. Use a nit-comb or fingernails to remove these. Wash your hands and clean your fingernails thoroughly afterwards. Use apple cider vinegar regularly on your hair to keep the scalp free of pests and other infections.

Heartburn – Ironically, heartburn results from too little hydrochloric acid rather than too much. Taking antacids only compounds the problem. Regular use of apple cider vinegar can help eliminate the problem as it properly breaks down fats and proteins and stimulates digestive enzymes to improve the whole digestive process.

Heatstroke – This can happen when not enough fluids are consumed, causing the body to overheat. Apple cider vinegar can quickly restore electrolytes and other minerals lost during sweating. In fact, an age-old remedy called switchel was served to exhausted workers. It consisted of combining 2 tablespoons of apple cider vinegar, 1 ½ tablespoons of blackstrap molasses, and 2 cups boiling water poured over ice.

Hemorrhoids – Apply full strength apple cider vinegar to the hemorrhoid to promote shrinking and a reduction in the itch and pain. Regular internal use can help with the digestion that precludes the onset of hemorrhoids.

Hiccups – There are so many remedies for hiccups that adding apple cider vinegar should come as no surprise. Sipping a glass of warm TONIC sometimes helps.

Hives – Make a paste of equal parts apple cider vinegar and cornstarch and apply to the hives or rash to help calm the itching. This also works for jock itch and other rashes.

Impetigo – Impetigo is a very contagious bacterial infection (staph or strep) often seen in young children. Applying apple cider vinegar to the lesions every 3 hours should help halt the spread and dry up the areas.

Iron absorption – Apple cider vinegar can help improve the absorption of iron, a mineral that carries oxygen to the cells and holds it there, thus preventing iron deficiency anemia. The acetic acid found in apple cider vinegar helps release iron from food. The more iron that is absorbed, the more oxygen will be in the blood cells and the more energy a person will have.

Insect bites and stings – Apply full strength apple cider vinegar to reduce pain and/or itching.

Insomnia – A glass of apple cider vinegar TONIC with a little honey before bed often helps. The carbohydrates in the vinegar and honey will activate serotonin, a brain chemical that promotes relaxation.

Kidneys – Pyelitis (Pyelonephritis) is an inflammation of a kidney. Some doctors have used the apple cider tonic with good results. However, always check with your own health care professional.

Leg cramps – Regular intake of TONIC can help absorb calcium and magnesium. A lack of these minerals often contributes to leg cramps, especially at night.

Liver function – Apple cider vinegar has long been used as a detoxifying agent. To promote good liver function, add an additional 1 tablespoon of apple cider vinegar to your daily TONIC. This will increase the breakdown of fats and proteins from foods that tax the liver.

Night sweats – Whether night sweats are the result of an illness or menopause, drinking a glass of TONIC in the morning can help rebalance the hormones and help the body remove toxins through the perspiration.

Pets – Apple cider vinegar works very well on animals, as well as on humans.
Putting a little in their water dish helps keep their digestive tract healthy, deters fleas and ticks, and gives them a shiny coat.
Swabbing their ears with diluted apple cider vinegar keeps them free from itching.
Skin conditions are relieved by adding apple cider vinegar to their bath.
Using the vingegar instead of tomato juice can help relieve the smell after a run-in with a skunk, as well as being healthy for their coats; shampoo as usual after the treatment. Horses can develop intestinal stones (enteroliths) that can cause blockages. Veterinary researchers at University of California Davis recommend 1-2 cups of apple cider vinegar daily in their water to prevent these stones from forming. In addition, by pouring the vinegar over the feed, flies stay away.

Poison ivy, oak, sumac, nettles – Mix equal parts of cider vinegar and water and apply directly to the area. By keeping this mixture in a spray bottle in the fridge, the coolness will also help bring more relief.

Salt replacement – Apple cider vinegar can be used to replace salt, which can be a flavor enhancer for fat. In other words, eating too much salt can cause a person to increase fat consumption. Adding apple cider vinegar to protein foods, including beans, can go a long way in enhancing flavour and be a much healthier substitute for salt.

Shingles – This is a painful condition of the nerves caused by a herpes virus. Applying apple cider vinegar full strength to the areas 6 or 8 times a day can help the itching and burning. Taking apple cider vinegar internally can help speed healing as well.

Sinusitis – Drinking a glass of apple cider vinegar TONIC can balance the body’s pH level since sinusitis is sometimes caused by the body being too alkaline. Inhaling the fumes from hot apple cider vinegar and water can also help destroy any virus or bacteria that might also be the cause of an infection.

Sore throat – Gargling with apple cider vinegar TONIC helps relieve a sore throat – but do not swallow the gargle since you do not want to swallow any microbes that might be the cause. Apple cider vinegar can reduce any swelling and increase the flow of mucus. This is also a good preventative if there is to be much stress placed on the throat, as singing or public speaking.

Swimmer’s ear – Combining the drying effects of alcohol with the disinfecting properties of apple cider vinegar can help reduce the itching and pain. You can use 3 to 4 drops in the ear after swimming or showering.

Teeth – Daily rinsing with TONIC can help maintain good oral hygiene and fight bacteria that cause tooth decay and gum disease. However, be sure to rinse well with water afterwards as vinegar can damage tooth enamel in time.

Tinnitus – Tinnitus is an annoying condition with any number of causes. Daily consumption of TONIC helps improve mineral balance and circulation, both of which can have a positive effect.

Ulcers – Apple cider vinegar has been used to help keep stomach ulcers from forming.

Varicose veins – A number of apple cider authorities recommend soaking a compress in the vinegar and wrapping it around the legs twice a day for a month. The legs should be kept elevated for about ½ hour before removing the compress. Drinking the TONIC before or with meals, along with the soaks, helps as well.

Warts – Combine 1 part salt with 4 parts apple cider vinegar and apply several times a day to the wart until it disappears.

Weight loss – Although fat is necessary for the body to function, most people eat too much of the wrong kinds. Appetite increases as daylight decreases. So does the craving for fat, which is the body’s main line of defence against the cold of winter and possible food shortage. The body uses protein for fuel and carbohydrates for instant energy, but it is fat that provides the resources for long-term energy.
Fat insulates vital organs (heart, liver, lungs, and kidneys) as well as keeping the body temperature regulated. It is also involved in certain chemical reactions in the body involving enzymes, hormones, and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K).

Another responsibility added to fat is its role in a healthy nervous system. When fat is combined with phosphorus, lecithin is created. Lecithin plays an important role in the formation of neurotransmitters – chemicals needed for proper functioning of the brain which, in turn, controls such things as appetite, mood, and the ability to learn and remember.

Essential fatty acids are essential because they must come from the diet. Manufacturers remove the omega-3 fatty acids to lengthen shelf life. This means omega-6 fatty acids are all we get in most foods. The omegas work in opposition to each other; and by getting too much of one and not enough of the other, health problems result. For example, omega-6s increase blood pressure, blood clotting, and cell proliferation. Omega-3 fatty acids do the exact opposite and, without it, heart problems, diabetes, and cancers – just to name a few – increase.

So, what has all this got to do with apple cider vinegar and weight loss? Well, I am glad you asked. Apple cider vinegar helps with gradual weight loss. Fad diets encourage rapid weight loss – which is never permanent. This is how.

The acids in apple cider vinegar help to improve the digestion of protein. Protein helps to construct some of our hormones, especially the growth hormone which is instrumental in breaking down fat cells. By increasing the acid in the stomach before a meal begins, the chances for proper digestion of protein also increases. All too often people think they have too much acid because they have heartburn and take an antacid when, in fact, the exact opposite is true. The stomach is too alkaline and pours out more acid to compensate, but antacids are taken instead and the whole viscious cycle begins again.

Proper digestion of protein will also improve carbohydrate conversion and, ultimately, insulin production. Apple cider vinegar starts a process by first raising the metabolism, which increases the body’s ability to utilize proteins for insulin formation. This ultimately improves the transformation of the amino acid tryptophan into serotonin, which is a natural mood elevator and tranquilizer. In addition, because apple cider vinegar stimulates and improves digestion, it can reduce the amount of time fats remain in the digestive tract all the while allowing enough time for other nutrients to be absorbed.

All of these chain reactions will send the fats to where they are needed rather than being stored where they are not wanted.


Holzapfel, Cynthia. Apple Cider Vinegar for Weight Loss and Good Health. Book Publishing Company, 2002.

Bragg, Patricia. Apple Cider Vinegar. 55th edition. Bragg Health Sciences, 2006.

Apple cider vinegar

Apple cider vinegar has been used for centuries as a folk remedy for a selection of ills. The ancient Egyptians, as far back as 3000 BC, and even the father of modern medicine, Hippocrates, sang the praises of this unique, yet humble, product.

Fermenting apple juice to alcoholic apple cider, and then letting the oxygen interact with it, turns the alcohol into acetic acid - one of the "magic" ingredients in the finished product. To help this process along from the alcoholic base, "mother" is added - that being the spider web look-alike bacteria foam that forms during the fermentation process.

Some benefits that may be achieved by using it:

Apple cider vinegar - Introduction
Substances in apple cider vinegar
Minerals and trace elements
Useful in
Blood pressure
Food poisoning
Kidney Stones
Nasal congestion
Sore throat
Stiff joints
Weight loss

Apple cider vinegar - Introduction

The saying of "an apple a day keeps the doctor away" comes from the medieval English saying, which really goes "to eat an apple before going to bed will make the doctor beg for his bread."

This would be hard to believe in our modern day world, where our health is kept together and disease is kept at bay by a battery of doctors - ranging from cardiologists, dermatologists, gynecologists, internists, oncologists, neurologists, pathologists, radiologists etc.

Some people complain that it might be too acid to drink, but that is really a fallacy since the acidity is lower than that of commercial cola!

LET US PLEASE EXPLAIN: The actual pH would be HIGHER - meaning that it is a LOWER acid value - being MORE towards being neutral - on its way to being alkaline.

And to make it even easier to swallow, we developed the apple cider vinegar capsule with gotu kola, where the active liquid is freeze dried, combined with the greatly beneficial gotu kola (Centella asiatica) herb, and capsulated in our laboratory - to make taking it an easy procedure.

Substances in apple cider vinegar

Scientists have measured ninety different substances in apple cider vinegar such as thirteen types of carbolic acids, four aldehydes, twenty ketones, eighteen types of alcohols, eight ethyl acetates etc.

It also contains important minerals, trace elements and vitamins (as listed underneath) as well acetic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, enzymes, amino acids as well as roughage in the form of potash and apple pectin.

For a full analytical list ingredients contained in apples, please click here.

Minerals and trace elements
Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorous, Chlorine, Sodium, Sulfur, Copper, Iron, Silicon, Fluorine.

Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Vitamin A, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B6, Provitamin beta-carotene, Vitamin P.

Useful in
Well functioning metabolism; Reducing cholesterol (the dangerous LDL cholesterol type); Regulating the water content in the cells and body; Reducing water retention in the body; Reducing excess sodium from the body; Helps with regulating blood pressure; Assists in preventing circulatory problems; Helps with diminishing premature calcification of the arteries; Helps increase concentration and memory; Assists in blood circulation, body temperature as well as vitality and energy.

This condition of inflammation of the joints is a major chronic disease in the West, and is believed to be partly caused by a build-up of toxic wastes in the tissues, causing irritation. It is thought that these metabolic toxic wastes can be contained by eliminating food allergies as well as unhealthy life styles such as smoking, not exercising and being obese.

Arthritis suffers have reported a positive influence that apple cider vinegar has on the pain experienced as well as slowing down the progression of this disease. Most people using it as a therapy for this problem ingest it four times a day.

Although orthodox medicine might not agree with this remedy, some people have found relief from asthma by ingesting apple cider vinegar, as well as applying pads, soaked in apple cider vinegar, under pressure to the inside of the wrists.

Blood pressure
The potassium in apple cider vinegar is said to be beneficial to both the heart and blood pressure, and in some quarters this remedy is said to assist in making the blood thinner, and thereby assisting with blood pressure and in the prevention of a stroke.

The manganese, magnesium, silicon (and calcium) found in apple cider vinegar has been linked in sustaining bone mass, which is important in the fight against osteoporosis.

A supplement of apple cider vinegar could for this reason be valuable to consider should you suffer from a calcium shortage, have a problem with osteoporosis, or if you are entering your postmenopausal stage, where a risk of bone loss could cause a problem.

Although apple cider cannot cure cancer, it is a valuable ally to have around to help fight free radicals in the body, which have been shown to be indicative in the formation of various cancers. Beta-carotene, found in apple cider vinegar, is a powerful antioxidant, which helps in neutralizing the free radicals, formed in our bodies through oxidation.

To prevent these free radicals, and to keep them in check, we need antioxidants in our system to rid our bodies of these potentially dangerous compounds. If free radicals are left alone to have the run of our bodies, they cause major damage by severely damaging cells, which leads to aging and degeneration.

The pectin in apple cider vinegar adds fiber to the diet, and even the American Cancer Society promotes a high fiber diet to help with preventing cancer, especially colon cancer. The reason for this is that fiber binds with certain cancer causing (carcinogenic) compounds in the colon, and speeds up their elimination from the body.

Although there are different factors influencing the formation of candida (which is a yeast infection) a disturbance of your diet, as well as an intake of antibiotics must be looked at when you experience such an episode of candida flare-up, since the yeast balance in your body can be thrown out of sync by these two factors.

A selection of topical creams and lotions are available, but a cheap alternative can be found by douching twice a day with a solution of ACV until the symptoms disappear. The solution is made from 2 tablespoons of ACV to a quart of lukewarm water - this solution will assist in restoring the acid balance.

A good warning system for heart disease is the presence of high blood cholesterol in the system. To help prevent this is to follow a lifestyle which includes eating a diet high in fruits and vegetables, maintaining your ideal weight, getting enough exercise while avoiding processed foods, junk foods and hydrogenated oils.

Another way is to add fiber to your diet, especially water-soluble fiber - such as the pectin found in apple cider vinegar. Water-soluble fiber soaks up water, which adds bulk, and interacts with your body, and also keeps on working longer than non water-soluble fiber.

Fiber also soaks up fats and cholesterol in the body and then is excreted instead of being reabsorbed.

Non water-soluble fiber soaks up moisture in the body, but cannot interact with the body. The amino acids contained in apple cider vinegar have also shown promise in neutralizing some of the harmful oxidized LDL cholesterol.

It has been found that the pH factor (the acidity factor) of the body becomes a bit more alkaline prior to a cold or flu striking you down. When you take apple cider vinegar it helps to rebalance the acid level of your body.

Another remedy for colds and flu, and said to be specifically beneficial for chest complaints during the winter, is to soak a piece of brown paper with apple cider vinegar, and to place pepper on the one side of the paper. You then tie the paper, pepper side down, on to your chest and leave on for 25 - 30 minutes.

Not having proper bowel movements is blamed for many illnesses and diseases which befall us. The logic behind it stating that should the waste products from our bodily functions be retained in the body, for longer than what nature intends, it will cause toxins to be absorbed back into the system.

As we age our bodies produce less and start to lag behind in the manufacture of digestive acids (hydrochloric acid), pepsin and digestive enzymes - which can cause constipation. When we add fiber to our diet, such as the pectin in apple cider vinegar, we assist our body by having regular bowel movements and proper elimination.

If you have never woken up in the middle of the night with cramps tearing through your calves, feet or legs, you would not understand the agony. A useful remedy to assist with this is to take apple cider vinegar.

This disease is becoming more and more common, and there may be various reasons for this phenomena, but it must be remembered that it is not only extremely serious, but needs proper medical supervision, and a strict adherence to dietary rules and medication, as prescribed by your medical practitioner. It is however interesting to note that added dietary fiber, such as contained in apple cider vinegar, is beneficial in controlling blood glucose levels.

There are various causes for diarrhea, and although it should not be left untreated, it sometimes is a way for the body to rid itself of harmful compounds and ingested materials. The pectin in apple cider vinegar is great to take when suffering from this problem, since this water-soluble fiber swells up, and forms bulk.

It is also an effective ingredient to use against certain bacteria which causes diarrhea and the intestinal flora also transforms pectin into a protective coating which soothes the irritated lining of the colon. Next time you have a problem, consider this most humble treatment.

Although prescribing apple cider vinegar for depression would be classed as extremely alternative, some Eastern medicines do believe that depression is the symptom of a "stagnant" or tired liver. If you believe in this philosophy, then apple cider vinegar would help to fight depression, since it is a great medium to help detoxify and clean the liver.

Cataract development in the eye is associated to oxidation of the lens of the eye due to alterations caused by free radicals changing the structure of the lens. With this in mind apple cider vinegar can be of use with this problem, since the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene contained in apple cider vinegar, are great in combating free radicals.

Lactic acid is released in the body during exercise as well as periods of stress, and this can lead to fatigue, which in turn can be combated by the amino acids contained in apple cider vinegar. The enzymes, as well as the potassium contained in apple cider vinegar can also be of great help in the quest for more energy and vitality.

Food poisoning
Because of the great disinfectant qualities inherent in apple cider vinegar, some people when suffering from mild cases of food poisoning use it with success. If you suffer from violent symptoms, and suspect serious food poisoning please contact your medical practitioner immediately.

Gallstones and Kidney stones
A theory exist that the acids found in apple cider vinegar are beneficial in breaking up kidney stones and gallstones, by softening or dissolving them. Although we cannot guarantee any results, since there are so many other influencing factors, it might be worth your while to supplement your diet with apple cider vinegar, should you be suffering from gallstones or kidney stones.

The cause of headaches can be stress, allergies, tiredness, problems with your gallbladder, liver, kidneys, or a variety of other factors. Although apple cider vinegar cannot be touted as a headache treatment, is has been found that people have slightly more alkaline urine when suffering from a headache, and with this apple cider vinegar could be effective, since it will assist in bringing your body's acid level back into sync.

The inhalation of apple cider vinegar could also assist with a headache - and can be achieved by adding some apple cider vinegar to boiling water in a big pan, removing it from the stove and carefully inhaling the vapor.

Since apple cider vinegar is used to promote the health of veins and capillaries, it is by implication also useful in assisting in the health of the heart and blood pressure. The potassium found in the apple cider vinegar is also beneficial to the heart.

When people start talking about indigestion they immediately start referring to the "excess" stomach acid that they have! In most cases it is NOT a case of an excess of stomach acid, but a shortage of it.

Hydrochloric acid and pepsin, an enzyme working in an acid environment, are needed to break down the food effectively, and a shortage of these two ingredients will lead to a sluggish digestion of food and resultant indigestion. Taking apple cider vinegar may assist in effecting a remedy.

The quest for achieving the ideal weight always will include effective and efficient metabolism. Without it, your dietary intake will not be metabolized correctly, the nutrients will not be available to the body, and will result in excess weight being added to the body frame.

Apple cider vinegar has been used for centuries in aiding the liver to detoxify the body and to help with digesting rich, fatty and greasy foods, and for proper metabolizing of proteins, fats and minerals. If the food cannot be broken down into the absorbable form, the body cannot assimilate the required nutrients needed from the diet.

An added extra to help with this is the malic acid and tartaric acid found in apple cider vinegar, since they help to bring the acid content into balance, while killing off unwanted and unfriendly bacteria in the digestive tract.

Lactic acid in muscles is the cause of the muscles feeling sore and stiff, but by adding some apple cider vinegar to your diet, it could assist the body to get rid of it at a faster pace, since it will help to break down the acid crystals, making it much easier to be flushed out the body.

Nasal congestion
A constant draining of mucus from the sinus cavities can both be sore and uncomfortable. It is best to cut out, or eat as little as possible, of mucus forming food - which traditionally, in most cases would be dairy products.

Many sufferers of nasal congestion have experienced relief by adding apple cider vinegar to their diet.

Sore throat
A gargle made from apple cider vinegar and water could prove to be a great relief for a sore throat - be that a bacterial or virus infection. The solution is a 50/50 mixture, and it is best to spit out the solution after gargling, which should be repeated every hour. After gargling rinse the mouth with clean water to prevent the acid from eroding the enamel on your teeth.

Stiff joints
A shortage of potassium in the body may cause stiff joints. Apple cider vinegar could help in relieving this problem when ingesting it, since it is a good source of the needed nutrient. Another remedy is to relax in a warm tub, with some apple cider vinegar added to the water.

Apple cider vinegar is showing great promise in helping to heal alcohol-induced ulcers, since it activates the body to start its own defensive mechanism. This, together with other indicators suggests that apple cider vinegar may in the near future be drawn into the fold of alternative ulcer preventing remedies.

Weight loss
Apple cider vinegar has been used as a weight loss remedy for centuries, and although the mechanics are not always clear on how it works, it really does work.

It has been suggested that the apple cider vinegar works because it makes the body burn calories better, that it reduces the appetite or simply that it gets the entire metabolism working at top efficiency.

But whatever the reason, the fact remains that it has stood the test of time as a fat-busting supplement, and has helped countless people to achieve their ideal weight.