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24/02/2009

The History of Apples

THE BENEFITS OF THE USE OF APPLES
IN HERBAL PREPARATIONS

HISTORY OF APPLES

The world as we know it began with the apple. According to Genesis 3:6, Eve partook of the forbidden fruit, gave it to Adam and their eyes were opened. This fruit of knowledge is generally represented by the apple. Were it not for Eve’s transgression, mankind would never have been born. In the eyes of Christians, at least, our world began with the apple.

Malus pumila, the paradise apple has been symbolic of many things throughout history. The genus name Malus comes from the Latin root “mal” which means bad or evil. In the Garden of Eden it represents sin and knowledge. “…the apple of my eye” are the words used by Jehovah in the Old Testament of the Bible, to describe his favored people. The ‘apple’ of the eye is the pupil, the center. God said he kept the children of Israel in the apple of his eye as a way of saying to them that they were central and favored, that he watched over them even in their trials.

Cutting an apple cross-wise will reveal more symbolism. The shape revealed is a five-pointed star. This pentagram, though often mistaken for a satanic symbol, is actually a Christian symbol which represents the atonement. This five pointed star is also called the Star of Bethlehem, representing the star that appeared at the birth of Jesus Christ. The seeds within the star of the fruit represent the Resurrection and Immortality or Rebirth, as this is how the fruit continues its life. This one fruit symbolizes the Birth, Sin and Death of man, then the Birth of a Savior who will Atone and Resurrect him to Immortality and Eternal Life.

This symbolism was carried though to several ancient pagan cultures as well. The Scandinavians had their goddess, Iduna whose name meant ‘at-one-ness,’ very close to the word ‘atonement.’ According to legend, she tended the apple orchards at Asgard a land for the Immortals. To Asgard the other gods went each night to renew themselves. Their immortality depended on partaking of Iduna’s apples.

Like Asgard, Avalon was another place for the Immortals. It was believed that Celtic heros like King Arthur didn’t die but sailed through the mist to reach Avalon. Avalon was the “Apple Island”. The name came from the Welsh word “afal” or apple.

The Irish mythological heros were summoned to Emain Ablach, (Emain of the Apple Trees) or the Avalon equivalent, “Avallach”. This was done by an “other-worldly woman who brings the hero a silver-white blossomed apple branch from Emain…” Some believe these legends to be rooted in descriptions of druidic ceremonies.

In addition to being a fruit rich in symbolism, there is much plant lore assigned to the apple. Apple boughs hung above the door frame of a house are said to bless the couple that resides therein with added peace and love. Others have used the apple in a love spell that involves cutting the apple cross-wise and sharing it with the one that you love to increase the attraction. In Danish folklore, however, apples are believed to wither around adulterers.

Many American children have bobbed for apples on Halloween. This child’s game may have originated from and Irish Tradition, “La mas nbhal.” This was “the feast of the apple gathering” which took place on All Hallow Eve. There was a spicy cider and toast beverage in which apples were floated. “It was usual for each person who partook of the spicy beverage to take out an apple and eat it, wishing good luck to the company.”

In England on Christmas Eve, there once was a popular custom called, “wassailing the orchard trees.” The farmer with his family and workers would honor the most productive trees in the orchard with cider and hot cakes while saying the following toast three times:

“Here’s to thee, old apple tree!”
Whence thou mays’t bud, and whence thou mays’t blow,
Hats full! Caps full! Bushel-bushel-bags full!
And my pockets full, too! Huzza!”

Still in practice by some as late as the early 1900’s, wassailing was believed to ensure that the best trees would continue to bear much fruit.

“Wassaile the trees, that they may beare,
You many a Plum and many a Peare,
For more or lesse fruits they will bring,
As you do give them Wassailing.”

No respectable folk or legend history of apples would be complete would be complete without mentioning Sir Isaac Newton or Johnny Appleseed. Around 1665 or 1666, Newton went to spend some time at his mother’s home away from London. While sitting in the shade of an apple tree he contemplated his many scientific interests. He saw an apple fall to the ground. This inspired him to make the connection of Galileo’s experiments with projectiles, his knowledge of the moon’s orbit, and this fallen apple. The result was the Theory of Gravity.

Johnny Appleseed made no contribution to Physics, but he is a well loved American folk hero just the same. Born in 1774 as John Chapman, he developed a great love for apples. He dedicated his life to pomology, (the cultivation of apple trees.) He worked tirelessly, starting many nurseries throughout Indiana, Ohio, and all along the Allegeny River. His legendary nickname brings to mind a vision of a barefoot man with a sack of apple seeds slung over his shoulder throwing the pips out as he walked the countryside. However, being a gifted pomologist, John Chapman would have known that planting apple trees from their seed was not an effective way to spread his love for this fruit.

Legends, symbols, and myths aside, apples have a history traceable by archeologists and historians. To find the origin of the first apple tree, some point to Southwestern Asia between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea. Others point to carbon dated seeds that were found in Antolia. These are believed to be from 6500 B.C. Still others have found fossilized imprints of apple seeds dating to the Neolithic period in England.

Wherever the true origin of the first apple trees may be found, one thing is certain, man has always been less than a pip’s throw away. Henry David Thoreau once wrote, “It is remarkable how closely the history of the apple tree is connected with that of man.” He remarked that everywhere man migrates he takes his orchard with him.

But perhaps he meant more. As another author has put it, “From a few natural crab apple species, the varieties of apples increased to thousands, very much like the diversity and richness of the cultures and civilizations all over the world.” The first apple trees were types of crab apple trees. These bear a small sour fruit. Through an unknown number of years, these sour little fruits were coaxed by man to be the plump and sweet fruit we know today.

Ancient Greeks were very familiar with the apple tree. Homer mentions apples in the Odyssey (circa 850 B.C.) By the 7th century B.C., apples were considered to be very valuable to the Greeks. To celebrate their wedding night, a couple was allowed to share only one apple. It has been suggested that in ancient Greece it was easy to catch a woman -if she could catch an apple. The man’s toss was the proposal, her catch was the acceptance. One of the most famous Greeks is Hippocrates. He lived around 400 B.C. Considered the father of medicine, he was well acquainted with apples. He said, “Let your food be your medicine and let your medicine be your food.” His most favored prescriptions for his patients included apples, dates and barley mush.

It was the Romans however, that are credited with the perfection of the fruit and its spread throughout Europe. In order to have developed the fruit we know today, cross-breeding had to take place to bring out the sweetness. To preserve the new varieties of fruit they had developed, Roman pomologists employed the technique called “grafting”. Without grafting, trees planted from seeds or pips, as they are sometimes called, eventually revert back to their sour ancestors. Pliny the Elder, a Roman statesman, wrote “Historia naturales,” around 23 A.D. At that time he describes 37 different varieties of cultivated apples, and notes how farmers would auction the fruit on the trees.

When the Romans invaded Britian in 55 B.C., they found the locals drinking apple cider. This was most likely from a more tart variety of apple than the Roman people had been enjoying. Like their herbs and medicines, the Roman’s brought their sweet varieties of apples and orchards with them. During their occupation, officers were given lands to entice them to stay in England. Many accepted, and on those lands they planted orchards.

In 597 A.D., long after the Roman armies had left Britain, Christianity was reestablished in England. At this time, monks were predominantly responsible for planting orchards and tending them at their monasteries, along with their herb gardens. “Encyclopedia” (printed in 1470 A.D.) by Bartholomeus Angelicus, mentions the value of the apple tree as did many of the old Saxon manuscripts. “Malus the Appyll Tree… is gracious in syght and in taste and vertuous in medicyne…”

Fruit cultivation took a hit during the Black Death. This decline was reversed by Henry the VIII. In 1533, one of the king’s fruitiers named Richard Harris, imported apple trees from France. He worked to create new varieties with the trees from France. One of his missions was to reestablish orchards to supply England with trees and fruit.

When the colonists came to the New World, they brought with them a variety of apples. Cider production records from the year 1635 prove the value placed on the apple tree by the settlers. A Mr. Wolcott of Connecticut produced a record 500 hogshead of cider that year. This is roughly the equivalent of 55,000 gallons. It takes about 36 apples to make one gallon of cider. Orchard owners must have enjoy considerable success.

America’s oldest apple tree is believed to have been the one planted by Peter Stuyvesant in 1647. He was the governor of “New Amsterdam” at the time he planted the tree in his Manhattan orchard. It was still bearing fruit 219 years later when it was run over by a derailed train in 1866.

Malus pumila known to many as the “Golden Delicious” apple was discovered in 1905. Anderson Mullins was tending his apple orchard at his farm in Clay County, West Virginia that year when he spotted a tree bearing the huge yellow fruit. It had spontaneously appeared from seed. Over the years he watched this tree as it continued to produce the sweet, plump fruit. Finally in 1913, he sent a sample to the Stark Brothers nursery in Missouri where he had bought his stock of apple tree seedlings. Although red apples ruled at the time, Paul Stark Sr. was soon converted. He later bought the rights to the tree and named it Golden Delicious. In 1972, the “Golden Delicious” apple was named the official state fruit of West Virginia and is grown all over the world today.

Apples have come a long way since their beginning. Between 7500 and 10,000 varieties are cultivated today. The leading producer is China, followed by the United States, Turkey, Poland, and Italy. New varieties have been developed that do well in warmer climates without the need of a two month dormant period. Growers are taking advantage of the seasons all over the world in order to supply fresh apples year round. It is no wonder that the apple is the most well known and well loved fruit in many nations of the world.

LOCATION OF APPLES

The taxonomic hierarchy for our delicious apple is as follows: Plantae, Tracheobionta, Spermatophyta, Magnobophyta, Magnobiopsida, Rosdae, Rosales, Rosaceae, Malus P. , Malus pumila. From the apples taxonomy we learn that it is a member of the Plant Kingdom with veins, produces seeds and flowers in the two seeded leaf class. It is member of the Subclass Rosidae, in the Order of Rosales. Apples are members of the Rose family. Malus pumila has the common name of “paradise apple.” Others know Malus pumila as “Golden Delicious.”

Malus pumila grows wild in temperature zones usually between 30 degree and 60 degree latitude either north or south. The ideal location for an apple orchard is on the tops of rolling hills to protect the blossoms from frost damage. An orchard setting is generally needed because the tree cannot self-pollinate. Apple trees with similar growing seasons are grown together to allow for cross-pollination to be performed by bees.

The cultivation of apples is called pomology. New trees are grown from cuttings, called scions, which are grafted to a strong root stock. Apples are not generally grown from seeds because each contains, a “randomly divided half of the mothers chromosomes and the same for the father’s (pollen donor) “ This means a planted seed is not likely to resemble its parent but instead will revert back to a previous wild species or become a new type of apple tree altogether. These new trees produce their first fruit after four to five years of growing. Apple blossoms appear late in spring after the danger of frost, around April in the temperate zone. At first the blossoms appear pink but fade to white when fully open. The fruit becomes ripe in fall due to the efforts of 50 leaves photosynthesizing to produce energy to make one fruit. It is generally accepted that the larger the fruit, the sweeter the taste.

Malus pumila is not a tall tree like oaks and maples. They may reach up to 40 feet tall. The lifespan of the apple tree is sometimes over 100 years. The profile of an apple tree is distinct with its squatty, gnarled trunk and rigid, crooked branches.

If you have no orchard of your own, the best place to obtain fresh apples is from a farmers market. They will less likely be waxed with paraffin or contain chemical pesticides commonly used in the commercial growing process. To choose an apple ensure it is firm and blemish free. Refrigeration is recommended. Apples can ripen up to ten times faster at room temperature

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF APPLES

The main constituents that contribute to the apples vast usefulness and great taste are hard to narrow down. Over twenty have been documented in the unpeeled fruit alone to contribute a vast amount of biological activities. Those with known biological activities located in either the fruit or peel or both are: Alpha-Linolenic-Acid, Asparagine, D-Categin, Isoqurctrin, Hyperoside, Ferulic-Acid, Farnesene, Neoxathin, Phosphatidyl-Choline, Reynoutrin, Sinapic-Acid, Caffeic-Acid, Chlorogenic-Acid, P-Hydroxy-Benzoic-Acid, P-Coumaric-Acid, Avicularin, Lutein, Quercitin, Rutin, Ursolic-Acid, Protocatechuic-Acid, and Silver. From Dr. James Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Database website, we find that in addition to these phytochemicals the whole fruit contains many more for which the biological activity is not yet known. Many of the benefits of the apple come from enzymes and flavinoids.

The “Nutrition Almanac” by Lavon J. Dunne gives us further nutritional information on the apple. In one medium apple weighing about five ounces we find the following constituents of vitamins and minerals; Vitamin A, B1, B2, and B6, Niacin, Pantothenic acid, Folic acid, Vitamin C and Vitamin E, Calcium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Phosphorus, Pottassium, Selenium, Sodium, and Zinc. The fats in the apple contain no cholesterol. Instead they are a blend of lipids, saturated, unsaturated and monounsaturated fats. In addition to fats the apple contains the other macronutrients of proteins, and carbohydrates. Other phytochemicals include; Tryptophan, Threonine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lycine, Methionine, Cystine, Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Valine, Argenine, Histidine, Alanine, Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid, Glycine, Proline, and Serine. Trace amounts of Boron and Cobalt are found in apples.

There are four to five grams of soluble and insoluble fiber per apple. This fiber is from cellulose, pectin and lignin. The sugars of fructose and sucrose make up about 9% to 12% of the fruit and give it its sweet taste, while the tartness comes from the malic, tartaric, and citric acids. The tannins, making up 0.2%, give it an astringent cooling and thirstquenching effect. Finally, Amygdaline, a naturally occurring cyanide is found in the seeds

MEDICINAL QUALITIES OF APPLES

The cancer fighting qualities contained in a fresh, unpeeled apple are impressive. There are numerous studies whose findings are promising to anyone seeking to prevent or treat cancer.

Lung cancer may be at the top of the list. The findings of the Nurses’ Health Study revealed apples were one of the fruits associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer. This was found to be more significant among the women rather than the men. A 40% to 50% decrease in lung cancer was found in participants of a study in Hawaii. Of both men and women, those who ate more apples, onions, and white grapefruit saw the most reduction of the cancer. In a Finnish study, apples were the only specific foods that were inversely related to lung cancer risk. Apples have an anti-tumor action. This was evident in the Zutphen Elderly study. Reduced incidences of tumors in the respiratory tract were detected in those who received more flavinoids from fresh fruit, like the apple.

Other promising news for the lungs means better over-all health. Lung function increases with apple consumption. A study of men and women in the Netherlands indicated an increase of lung function in those who ate more apples. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, often a result of smoking cigarettes, was reduced while pulmonary function increased. These results were especially evident in those who ate an apple five times a week. Other pulmonary complaints were decreased also. Incidents of asthma and its cohort -allergies were reduced. Both were shown to be inversely affected by consuming fresh apples.

Lung cancer was not the only form of cancer worked on by apples. Many of the same studies previously cited proved apple’s value with other forms. Among these are; prostate cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, and leukemia. A list of known biological activities associated with apples include: anticancer, antileukemic, antimutagenic, antimetastic,
antineoplastic (stomach), antiproliferant, and antitumor of the skin, pancreas, stomach breast and bladder.

In addition to important cancer fighting constituents, apples will aid the digestive system and related diseases. First of all, apples fight obesity. The fiber in the form of pectin is just one factor that affects weight. The pectin has and amphoteric action. This means it is either laxative or antidiarrheal, according to the body’s needs.

The malic and tartaric acids contribute to the apple’s usefulness as a digestive aid. These acids keep food from fermenting in the stomach, allowing for better digestion. The apple itself is digested completely with in 85 minutes. The acids and enzymes that help it to be digested so quickly also aid in digesting other foods.

Pectin can interfere with the body’s ability to absorb dietary fats. Obesity is a huge factor in Type II diabetes. Blood sugar is also a factor. Pectin aids in the reduction of blood sugar. So among apple’s antiobesity, nutritive and digestive qualities is revealed its antidiabetic action.

Apples are cleaners. Among some of the reported actions are benefits for those exposed to radiation. It has been reported that apples are beneficial in binding radioactive residues and helping to excrete them from the body. Apples can also help remove toxic metals like lead from the body.

Maybe one of the most important cleaning actions provided by apples has to do with cholesterol. The pectin, as well as other constituents, play a role in reducing the bad cholesterol in the body. This is good news for blood vessels and the heart. Because apple is also a hemetic, it can build the blood as well as cleanse it.

A reduced risk of cardiovascular disease has been associated with apple consumption. In the Women’s Health Study, it was found that those whose diets were very high in flavonoids, especially from apples and onions, had a 35% reduction in risk of cardiovascular events. The Finnish study found a lower risk of thromibic stroke among apple consumers. The Zutphen Study concluded “flavinoid intake was strongly correlated with a decreased mortality from heart disease in elderly men and also negatively correlated with myocardial infarction.”

This same study showed apple’s constituents to have an effect on cerebrovascular health. The apple provides antioxidants for the body. Oxidative damage on cells by free radicals contributes to age related brain disorders. Alzheimers and senility are examples. Apples have been cited as antialzheimerian. A study conducted by the University of Massachusetts suggests that whether the oxidation is caused by normal metabolism, dietary insufficiencies or genetic deficiencies, apples can help.

The apple also contains qualities that help prevent the eye and nerve damage associated with diabetes. This happens when too much sugar alcohol, called sorbitol gets trapped in nerve and eye cells. Apples have the quality of being an Aldose Reductase inhibitor. This quality may be means of delaying this common effect of diabetes.

Apples have and ACE inhibitor quality. This aspect helps relax arteries, lower blood pressure and improves the pumping ability of the heart.

Most of the apples medicinal qualities treat chronic illness. ‘An apple a day’ is an important adage to follow in order to enjoy its effects in these areas. There are so many more benefits inherent in the apple. One source cites; Antianemic, antibacterial, antiinflamitory, antimenopauseal, antiCrohn’s, antiedemic, anti PMS, antiseptic, antiyeast, antiviral, capillary protective, hepatoprotective, diuretic, fungicide, nematicided (round worms), and neuroprotective are a few not mentioned before. Still other sources assign tonic, astringent and hypocholeteraemic, disinfectant, cardiac stimulant and cephalic.

CONTRA-INDICATIONS OF APPLES

Apples are a safe food to use in nearly all instances. They are nontoxic, not habit-forming and to my knowledge they are within the law to consume. A few cautions may be considered for the overly cautious.

Apples are difficult to grow without the use of pesticides and herbicides. There are several pests and diseases that enjoy apples as much as we all do. Apples grown in the United States rank among the top 12 foods most contaminated by pesticides with a score of 124 (200 = most toxic). There are organic growers out there, and their numbers are growing. Seek fresh organic apples if possible. This will reduce the risk of ingesting any unwanted chemicals.

Consuming fruits in excessive amounts is believed to cause griping pain or diarrhea. This may be true for some unripe or sour varieties. This should not be a concern with Malus pimila. If there is any concern, however, this can be avoided by thoroughly chewing each bite before swallowing. This will start the digestive process. In “Back to Eden” by Jethro Kloss we learn that time on an exclusive apple diet is safe and will greatly benefit the body. But Kloss warned that “ordinary apple cider is not fit to be used.”

The main caution with apples is the over consumption of apple seeds. Amygdaline is cyanide that occurs naturally in the seeds. It has the capability of poisoning, as one man found out. “There is a famous, sad case of an American man who saved up all his apple pips until he had about a cup of them. One day- for a reason that will always remain a mystery- he ate all the pips he collected and died as a result.” The seeds are safe in small amounts. If you plan to eat apple seeds, eat the apple, too. In other words, consuming one apple with all its seeds at the same time is safe.

KNOWN HERBAL FORMULAS OF APPLES

When it comes to apples, there are not very many formulas lurking around with a whole fresh unpeeled apple in them. The apple is the formula. Its many constituents make a magical brew for good health, without needing help from any other substance. However, different forms of the apple show up in formulas now and then.

Apple juice in the freshly pressed form can be used countless ways for elixirs. Any powdered herb that is difficult to take for an adult or child can be mixed with apple juice to help it go down. In a formula designed for children, apple juice is combined with the berries of Alder, (Black prinos verticullatus). This makes a pleasant tasting and effective elixir to expel worms.

Dating back to at least the 1600’s, there is a recipe for an ointment for rough skin. This is made with apple pulp which has been scraped from the apple. It is then combined with lard and rosewater.

Most of apple’s use is as the single ingredient. Even with a juice fast, apple juice is to be consumed exclusively for the three days with the exception of the morning prune juice. In his book, “Back to Eden,” Jethro Kloss recommends an exclusive diet of fresh apples to do the body much good.

Don’t fault the apple as unfriendly. It can play nice with others if it has to, but does much better as an only child.

DOSAGES & APPLICATIONS OF APPLES

How can we make use of this wonderful fruit? What are the best applications and dosages to employ for our needs? The best use of an apple’s goodness is to eat it fresh and unpeeled at least once a day. There are no set limits on the number of properly masticated Malus Primila one can consume in a day because an apple can be eaten anytime there is a hunger for one.

Apples are suitable for the very young and the very old. However, they may need to be peeled and scraped to form a mush similar to uncooked apple sauce if the person hasn’t sufficient teeth or chewing skills. For teething babies, dried apple slices are recommended in place of a teething ring.

If the whole fruit won’t do, the freshly pressed juice may be used. Each mouthful should be “chewed” or swished in the mouth. This mixes the juice with the saliva and begins the digestive process. This is helpful for anyone with a blood sugar related illness. Properly swishing should also help one avoid any possible stomach upset.

The juice may be used to form an elixir. This is useful when there is a need to disguise the taste of an herb. Simply mix the powdered herb in a glass of apple juice and drink. The dosage would be determined by the herb and size of the person.

Possibly one of the best ways, aside from an apple a day, to use apple juice for a juice cleanse. The instructions for following a three-day cleanse or fast are simple. On the morning of each day, the first juice to consume is 16 ounces of prune juice. One half hour after the prune juice, eight ounces of freshly pressed apple juice is consumed. This is done by swishing the juice in the mouth before swallowing. Distilled water can be had one half hour after the apple juice. Juice and water are alternated throughout the day until at least two quarts of juice are consumed. One or two tablespoons of olive oil should also be taken three times a day during the three days. The olive oil will lubricate the liver and bile ducts and aid in elimination. The recommended use of the three day cleanse is once a month.

Further applications that involve the apple include making a poultice. The fruit can be made into a poultice in the following ways. Scrape the fresh pulp from the fruit and apply it to the needed area until the soothing or cooling effect is accomplished. Rotten apple pulp can be used as a poultice in the same way. Additionally, one that has been baked to a mushy consistency would make a suitable poultice as well.

Apple cider vinegar is another form of using apples. Raw apple cider vinegar purchased from a health food store is recommended. Two to three times per day it can be made into a beverage. By adding a tablespoon of apple cider vinegar to a cup of distilled water and two teaspoons of raw honey it becomes like a tart beverage.

As a hair rinse, apple cider vinegar is also useful. To make a hair rinse, simply mix the vinegar with water 50/50. Rinse this mixture through damp, freshly shampooed hair. Massage it into the scalp and rinse thoroughly with clean water. Alternately, this is an ideal body wash.

APPLES - PERSONAL EXPERIENCE

Apple is a word that I can’t even think or say without feeling instantly cheered. This is partly due to the taste and partly due to the nostalgia. When I lost my two front teeth as a child, I had a hard time eating my favorite snack. My mother taught me to break the apple pieces off in my mouth using my side teeth. This is a very noisy and sloppy sounding way to eat an apple. My mother deeply regrets teaching me to eat my apples this way. I have been perfecting this for nearly three decades.

I get chuckle from remembering the pitiful looking apple tree that grew near our chicken coup. One year a nest of yellow jackets set up shop in a hollow portion of its trunk. It wasn’t the menacing presence of these stinging insects that nearly killed the tree, rather, the gallon of gasoline and matches applied by my older brother. As most twelve year old boys would believe, this was a perfectly safe and effective form of pest control.

Apples also bring to mind my grandmother, Ruby. As a child she would climb out onto the branches of the apple tree at the old farm. This was at the behest of her grandmother to retrieve the ripe fruit. “Cut it across the bloom”, she would tell her. Then Ruby would scrape the pulp for her because she had no teeth. This same grandmother taught me to make a hair rinse of apple cider vinegar for my dark hair. She said it would keep it dark. Her hair stayed shiny and nearly all black even up until her death at age 91.

Like all good and trustworthy people I have loved apples since I can remember. However, for a time I wasn’t willing to eat them. As a teen and young adult, eating apples seemed to interfere with my diet. It was a diet, fed intravenously, of chocolate, pizza and cheesy pasta. When I would eat an apple I would experience cramping and pain in my abdomen. This must have been due to an actual digestive process. Digestion was not something I did well as a teen.

All joking aside, I can report of health benefits I have received through apples. I have done several three day juice fasts. My experience was positive. I began to loose weight- down twenty pounds to date- which I know is a result of my juice cleansing. The cleanses helped me kick my milk and dairy addictions. It helped me desire better foods. I can easily tolerate large amounts of fresh fruits and vegetables where I could not before. I can breathe easily now, with no more stuffy nose when I wake up. The added energy, especially just after a fast, is always a blessing. The benefits for my mind and spirit are the biggest reasons I continue to do juice cleansing. It seems there is an inexplicable hope and excitement in all that I do. During the quiet, low-key days of fasting, I have received my most treasured inspirations. Apples are the first fruit recommended for babies. This is good advice for anyone who finds themselves at the beginning, regardless of age, on a path to improved health.

APPLES - BIBLIOGRAPHY

Christopher, John R., The School of Natural Healing, 25th Anniversary Edition, Utah, Christopher Publications, Inc., 2001

Furhman, Joel, Eat to Live The Revolutionary Way for Fast and Sustained Weight Loss, 1st paperback edition, New York, Little, Brown and Company, 2005

Kloss, Jethro, Back to Eden, Revised and Updated Edition, Wisconsin, Lotus Press, 1999

Hutchens, Alma R., Indian Herbology of North America, Fifth Edition, Michigan, MERCO, 1974

Duke, James A., The Green Pharmacy the Ultimate Compendium of Natural Remedies from the World’s Foremost Authority on Healing Herbs, paperback edition, New York, St. Martin’s Press, 1998

Grieve, Mrs. M., A Modern Herbal, Dover edition, Volume I, New York, 1971

Elpel, Thomas J., Botany in a Day Thomas J. Elpel’s Herbal Field Guide to Plant Families, 4th edition, Montana, HOPS Press, 2000

Dunne, Lavon J., Nutrition Almanac, 5th edition, New York, McGraw-Hill, 2002

Boyer, Jeanell and Lui, Rui Hai, Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits, 12 May 2004, BioMed Central, online, www.arabmedmag.com, May 2005

Fraser, Anna, Apple, online, www.the-tree.orguk, May 2005

Marra, John L., “The Greatest Apple in the World”: Striking Gold in the Clay County Hills, Fall Issue, Goldenseal, West Virginia, the Division of Culture and History of the State of West Virginia, 1995

A History of Growing Apples in the UK, Blackthorn Cider, online, www.dryblackthorncider.com, may2005

Vanderveer, Chelsie, Why must apples be grafted?, April 2003, Weird Plants Archive, online, www.killerplants.com, May 2005

Apples, Innvista, online, www.innvista.com, May 2005

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Apple, Everything, online, www.everything2.com, May 2005

Felter,Harvey Wickes and Lloyd, John Uri, Kings American Dispensory, online, www.ibiblio.org, May 2005

An Apple a Day Keeps the Doctor Away, Vegetarians in Paradise, online, www.vegparadise.com, May 2005

Duke, Jim, Malus domisticas, Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases, online, www.sun.ars-grin.gov, May 2005

Apples Improving Memory and Learning, April 2004, Journal Pioneer, online, archives.foodsafetynetwork.ca/ffnet, May 2005

Pumping up with Apples, Vermont Apple News, online, www.vermontapples.org, May 2005

Apple phytochemicals fight cancer, July 2000, San Diego Earth Times, online, www.sdearthtimes.com, May 2005

Apples the Healthy Snack, New England Apples, online, www.apples-ne.com, May 2005

Apples Keep Your Family Healthy, Washington Apple Commission, online,
www.bestapples.com, May 2005

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