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26/06/2010

Black sesame

Basic Botanical Data of Black Sesame.

Black Sesame

Semen Sesami Nigrum
Botanical Source: Dry Seed of Sesamum indicum L
Pharmaceutical Latin: Semen Sesami Indici
Family: Pedaliaceae Genus: Sesamum Species: S. indicum
Pinyin:Hei Zhi Ma
Synonyms:Benne Seed.
Black Sesame is the dried ripe seed of Sesamum indicum L. (Fam. Pedaliaceae).
Action: To tonify the liver and the kidney, t replenish vital essence and blood, and to relax the bowels.
Indications: Dizziness, blurred vision, tinnitus, impaired hearing, premature greying of the hair and beard; loss of hair after a serious diseadse; constipation.

Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum. The precise natural origin of the species is unknown, although numerous wild relatives occur in Africa and a smaller number in India. It is widely naturalised in tropical regions around the world and is cultivated for its edible seeds.

It is an annual plant growing to 50 to 100 cm (2-3 feet) tall, with opposite leaves 4 to 14 cm (5.5 in) long with an entire margin; they are broad lanceolate, to 5 cm (2 in) broad, at the base of the plant, narrowing to just 1 cm (half an inch) broad on the flowering stem. The flowers are white to purple, tubular, 3 to 5 cm (1 to 2 in) long, with a four-lobed mouth.

Sesame Seed Description.

Sesame Seeds burst forth from the ripe seed-pods of the sesame plant with a shattering explosion, hence the term "open sesame"! Black and Golden Sesame Seeds are the un-hulled seeds which may be either black or golden brown. White Sesame Seeds are hulled seeds and are the most popular type to use in cooking. When baked or toasted, Sesame Seeds acquire a delicious nutty, crunchy taste, which makes them popular on biscuits and breads and even sprinkled over ice cream instead of chopped nuts. Black Sesame seeds are used in Chinese recipes and Golden Sesame Seeds garnish and flavour the traditional Turkish bread called simit that is sold by street-side vendors.

Roasted or unroasted, sesame seeds can be used for a variety of culinary dishes. Their sweet, nutty flavor suits rolls, meats, pastas, and vegetables well. Many countries use the seeds to make pastes and sauces for coating and dipping. The oil from the seeds can be used to make sesame oil.


Sesame is an annual herb yielding small, flat, teardrop-shaped seeds, ranging from cream to black in colour. Unhulled 'white' sesame seeds are beige rather than white and extremely high in calcium. Except for some Chinese dishes, it is invariably white, hulled sesame seeds which are used in Asia. Indian vegetarian cookery uses sesame seeds in combination with lentils, milk and rice to maximise protein content. Hulled, toasted sesame seeds are indispensable in certain Chinese sauces and marinades.

In Sri Lanka, one of the most popular confections is a sticky mixture of hulled white sesame seeds and palm sugar pounded together, shaped into bite-sized balls and wrapped in either cellophane or greaseproof paper. These are sold by roadside vendors and known as thala-guli (sesame pills).


Toasting hulled white sesame seeds gives them a wonderful nutty flavour and attractive deep golden colour. It is from toasted seeds that we get oriental sesame oil - rich golden brown and strongly flavoured. See OILS.

Black sesame seeds have an earthy taste in their raw state and are notsuitable for toasting as they become bitter. They are indispensable when making the famous showpiece Chinese dessert, toffee bananas - battered and deep-fried fruit dipped in clear caramel with black sesame seeds stirred through. The caramel-coated pieces of fried fruit are dropped into a bowl of ice and water to harden the caramel, then quickly transferred to a lightly oiled serving dish and eaten without delay. Slices of apple or sweet yam may be used instead of bananas. See recipe for Chinese Toffee Bananas.

Constituents and Phytochemicals of Black Sesame.

Black sesame seed is a very good tonic herb. It builds Yin Jing, and therefore it is a longevity herb. In addition to its essence-building capacity, Black Sesame also builds blood. It acts in much the same way as Polygonum. Black sesame seed is moistening to the intestines and helps move the bowels. It prevents and relieves constipation due to dryness of the intestines. Black sesame seed is extremely rich in calcium, containing 85 milligrams per gram of seeds. It is also high in protein, phosphorous, iron and magnesium.

Not only are sesame seeds a very good source of manganese and copper, but they are also a good source of calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphorous, vitamin B1, zinc and dietary fiber. In addition to these important nutrients, sesame seeds contain two unique substances: sesamin and sesamolin. Both of these substances belong to a group of special beneficial fibers called lignans, and have been shown to have a cholesterol-lowering effect in humans, and to prevent high blood pressure and increase vitamin E supplies in animals. Sesamin has also been found to protect the liver from oxidative damage.

sesamin. Formula:C20H18O6;0.18%~0.21%.
Oleic acid: 21.60%~28.80%

Other content: fatty oil (45%~60%): including oleic acid (45%); linoleic acid (37%); palmitic acid; stearic acid; arachidic acid;

sesamolin; sesamol; Vitamin E; lecithin (0.65%); planteose; sesamose; cytochrome C; nicotinic acid (0.48mg%); folic acid(18.45mg%); sucrose (0.64%);

Protein (22%): including alpha-glubolin; beta-glubolin; 13s-glubolin; albumin; glutelin; pedaliin; phytosterol; many kinds of amino acid; linolenic acid; sinapic acid; sesame lectin.


Sesamin:

Molecular Formula:C20H18O6; Molecular Weight:354.36; CAS Registry Number: 607-80-7. Melting Point: 122 - 123 degree C.
Pharmacology: Antioxidant,Bactericide,Insecticide,Non-competitive D5-desaturase inhibitor.

Sesamolin:


Molecular Formula:C20H18O7; Molecular Weight:354.36; CAS Registry Number:526-07-8
IUPAC: 1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl (1R,3aR,4S,6aR)-4-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)perhydrofuro[3,4-c]furan-1-yl ether;(1S,3aR,4R,6aR)-5-[4-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yloxy)tetrahydro-1H,3H-furo[3,4-c]furan-1-yl]-1,3-benzodioxole

Sesamol:


Synonyms:3,4-(Methylenedioxy)phenol; 1,3-Benzodioxol-5-ol; 5-Benzodioxolol;1, 3-Benzodioxol-5-ol;1,3-Benzodioxol-5-ol;1/C7H6O3/c8-5-1-2-6-7(3-5)10-4-9-6/h1-3,8H,4H;3,4-(Methylenedioxy)phenol; 3,4-Methylenedioxyphenol;5-19-02-00532 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);5-Hydroxy-1, 3-benzodioxole;5-Hydroxy-1,3-benzodioxole;533-31-3;AI3-17298;BRN 0127405; C10832;CCRIS 1386;EINECS 208-561-5;Methylene ether of oxyhydroquinone;NSC 59256;NSC59256;Phenol, 3,4- (methylenedioxy)-;Phenol, 3,4-(methylenedioxy)-;SDCCGMLS-0066221.P001;Sesamol;ZINC00164504.
Molecular Formula C7H6O3; Molecular Weight:138.12; CAS Registry Number:533-31-3; EINECS 208-561-5; IUPAC Name:benzo[1,3]dioxol-5-ol; Melting point:63-65 Deg C; Water solubility:slightly soluble.

Rich In Beneficial Minerals:

Sesame seeds are a very good source of copper, and calcium. Just a quarter-cup of sesame seeds supplies 74.0% of the daily value for copper, 31.6% of the DV for magnesium, and 35.1% of the DV for calcium.Black sesame seed is extremely rich in calcium, containing 85 milligrams per gram of seeds. It is also high in protein, phosphorous, iron and magnesium. This rich assortment of minerals translates into the following health benefits:


Copper Provides Relief for Rheumatoid Arthritis:

Copper is known for its use in reducing some of the pain and swelling of rheumatoid arthritis. Copper's effectiveness is due to the fact that this trace mineral is important in a number of antiinflammatory and antioxidant enzyme systems. In addition, copper plays an important role in the activity of lysyl oxidase, an enzyme needed for the cross-linking of collagen and elastin--the ground substances that provide structure, strength and elasticity in blood vessels, bones and joints.

Magnesium Supports Vascular and Respiratory Health:Studies have supported magnesium's usefulness in:

Preventing the airway spasm in asthma;
Lowering high blood pressure, a contributing factor in heart attack, stroke, and diabetic heart disease;
Preventing the trigeminal blood vessel spasm that triggers migraine attacks;
Restoring normal sleep patterns in women who are experiencing unpleasant symptoms associated with menopause.


Calcium Helps Prevent Colon Cancer, Osteoporosis, Migraine and PMS:In recent studies, calcium has been shown to:

Help protect colon cells from cancer-causing chemicals
Help prevent the bone loss that can occur as a result of menopause or certain conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis
Help prevent migraine headaches in those who suffer from them
Reduce PMS symptoms during the luteal phase (the second half) of the menstrual cycle

There is a little bit of controversy about sesame seeds and calcium, because there is a substantial difference between the calcium content of hulled versus unhulled sesame seeds. When the hulls remain on the seeds, one tablespoon of sesame seeds will contains about 88 milligrams of calcium. When the hulls are removed, this same tablespoon will contain about 37 milligrams (about 60% less). Tahini:a spreadable paste made from ground sesame seeds is usually made from hulled seeds (seeds with the hulls removed, called kernels), and so it will usually contain this lower amount of calcium.

The term "sesame butter" can sometimes refer to tahini made from sesame seed kernels, or it can also be used to mean a seed paste made from whole sesame seeds:hull included.

Although the seed hulls provide an additional 51 milligrams of calcium per tablespoon of seeds, the calcium found in the hulls appears in large part to be found in the form of calcium oxalate. This form of calcium is different than the form found in the kernels, and it is a less absorbable form of calcium. So even though a person would be likely to get more calcium from sesame seeds or sesame seed butter that contained the hulls, there is a question about how much more calcium would be involved. It would defintely be less than the 51 additional milligrams found in the seed hulls. And there would also, of course, be a question about the place of hull-containing sesame seeds on an oxalate-restricted diet.


Zinc for Bone Health:

Another reason for older men to make zinc-rich foods such as sesame seeds a regular part of their healthy way of eating is bone mineral density. Although osteoporosis is often thought to be a disease for which postmenopausal women are at highest risk, it is also a potential problem for older men. Almost 30% of hip fractures occur in men, and 1 in 8 men over age 50 will have an osteoporotic fracture. A study of 396 men ranging in age from 45-92 that was published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found a clear correlation between low dietary intake of zinc, low blood levels of the trace mineral, and osteoporosis at the hip and spine.

Sesame Seeds' Phytosterols Lower Cholesterol:

Phytosterols are compounds found in plants that have a chemical structure very similar to cholesterol, and when present in the diet in sufficient amounts, are believed to reduce blood levels of cholesterol, enhance the immune response and decrease risk of certain cancers.

Phytosterols beneficial effects are so dramatic that they have been extracted from soybean, corn, and pine tree oil and added to processed foods, such as "butter"-replacement spreads, which are then touted as cholesterol-lowering "foods." But why settle for an imitation "butter" when Mother Nature's nuts and seeds are a naturally rich source of phytosterols and cardio-protective fiber, minerals and healthy fats as well?

In a study in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, researchers published the amounts of phytosterols present in nuts and seeds commonly eaten in the United States.

Sesame seeds had the highest total phytosterol content (400-413 mg per 100 grams), and English walnuts and Brazil nuts the lowest (113 mg/100grams and 95 mg/100 grams). (100 grams is equivalent to 3.5 ounces.) Of the nuts and seeds typically consumed as snack foods, pistachios and sunflower seeds were richest in phytosterols (270-289 mg/100 g), followed by pumpkin seeds (265 mg/100 g).


Nutrition Note:

Sesame seeds are 25 percent protein and are especially rich in methionine and tryptophan, often lacking in adequate quantities in many plant proteins. One ounce of decorticated or hulled seeds contains 6 grams of protein, 3.7 grams of fiber, and 14 grams of total fat. When toasted they lose nutrients, scoring 4.8 grams of protein, gaining a little fiber at 4.8 grams, and packing 13.6 grams of total fat.

The fat in sesame seeds is 38% monounsaturated, and 44% polyunsaturated which equals 82% unsaturated fatty acids.Natural sesame seeds (unhulled) contain 5 grams of protein per ounce, 3.1 grams fiber, and 14 grams of total fat. When toasted they offer 4.8 grams of protein, 4.0 grams fiber, and 13.8 grams of total fat. Because sesame seeds are a plant food, there's no need to worry about cholesterol. There simply isn't any to be found within the seeds or the oil.

Tahini or sesame seed paste, contains 2.9 grams of protein per tablespoon, .9 grams of fiber, and 8.1 grams of total fat. Tahini also contains the B vitamins, including16 mcg of folic acid. That same tablespoon contains 153.6 mg calcium and 3.07 mg iron. Additional minerals include 57.9 mg magnesium and 93.12 mg potassium.

There is often concern that vegans do not get a sufficient amount of zinc in their diet. Include sesame tahini in your diet often and reap the benefit of plenty of zinc with one tablespoon supplying 1.17 mg.

Sesame oils, whether refined or unrefined, all contain about 14 grams of total fat per tablespoon. Sesame seeds are 44 to 60 % oil. The seeds are prone to rancidity, but the oil is resistant to oxidation, meaning that it is not prone to rancidity because of sesamol, a natural preservative within the oil. Sesame oil is polyunsaturated and high in oleic and linoleic fatty acids that are rich in omega 6.


Natural sesame seeds, those that are unhulled, are high in calcium. One tablespoon provides 87.8 mg while the hulled variety offers only 10.5 mg for that same tablespoon. Comparing sesame seeds to milk turned up some surprising figures in the calcium count. One cup of natural sesame seeds had 1404.0 mg of calcium, while one cup of non-fat milk provided 316.3 mg. and one cup of whole milk contained 291 mg of calcium.

Both natural and hulled sesame seeds contain healthy amounts of the B vitamins riboflavin, thiamine, and niacin. With natural seeds scoring 8.7 mcg of folic acid for 1 tablespoon and plenty of vitamin B6, you can count on sesame seeds for excellent nourishment.

Let's look at some of the mineral values of the sesame seed. One tablespoon of hulled seeds contains .62 mg of iron, 27.73 mg of magnesium, 32.53 mg potassium, and .82 mg of zinc. Figures for the natural, unhulled, are slightly higher. Sesame seeds also contain healthy amounts of phosphorous. If you're lacking iron, turn to the sesame seed. Its iron content is equal to that of liver.

Like all seeds, natural unhulled sesame seeds are living foods capable of producing generation after generation through the process of sprouting. They are nutrient dense in order to trigger the germination process and provide nourishment to the tiny plants as they grow from sprout to maturity.

Nutrients from the sesame seed are best absorbed in the form of sesame oil, tahini or sesame butter. The whole seeds do not break down readily and release all their nutrients.

Sesame Seeds Nutritional analysis:

Sesame seeds 0.25 cup 36.00 grams 206.28 calories
Nutrient Amount DV
(%) Nutrient
Density World's Healthiest
Foods Rating
copper 1.48 mg 74.0 6.5 very good
manganese 0.88 mg 44.0 3.8 very good
tryptophan 0.12 g 37.5 3.3 good
calcium 351.00 mg 35.1 3.1 good
magnesium 126.36 mg 31.6 2.8 good
iron 5.24 mg 29.1 2.5 good
phosphorus 226.44 mg 22.6 2.0 good
zinc 2.80 mg 18.7 1.6 good
vitamin B1 (thiamin) 0.28 mg 18.7 1.6 good
dietary fiber 4.24 g 17.0 1.5 good
World's Healthiest
Foods Rating Rule

excellent DV NLT 75% OR Density NLT 7.6 AND DV NLT 10%
very good DV NLT 50% OR Density NLT 3.4 AND DV NLT 5%
good DV NLT 25% OR Density NLT 1.5 AND DV NLT 2.5%




Origin of Sesame.

Sesame is an erect, annual plant Sesamum indicum L., or Sesamum orientale, of numerous types and varieties belonging to the family Pedaliaceae, cultivated since antiquity for its seeds, which are used as food and flavoring and from which a prized oil is extracted. The name goes back to Greek seesamon, which in turn was probably loaned from an Afro-Asiatic language (cf. Arabic saasim). There are two kinds of sesame, black and white.

Probably originating in Asia, the Chinese used it 5,000 years ago, and for centuries they have burned the oil to make soot for the finest Chinese ink blocks. Records show it has been cultivated in parts of India around 1600 BC. From there it was brought to Europe, grown in Egypt, and its value both medicinally and for cooking gradually spread throughout Europe. The Romans ground sesame seeds with cumin to make a pasty spread for bread. Once it was thought to have mystical powers, and sesame still retains a magical quality, as shown in the expression "open sesame," from the Arabian Nights tale of "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves." In Africa the seeds, called benne, were eaten as food as well as being used for oil and the seeds were taken by the slaves to America where it has been a cultivated food crop ever since.

The whole seed is used extensively in the cuisines of the Middle East and Asia. Halvah is a confection made of crushed and sweetened sesame seeds. In Europe and North America the seeds are used to flavor and garnish various foods, particularly breads and other baked goods. The aroma and taste of sesame seed are mild and nutlike.

Sesame oil is used as a salad or cooking oil, in shortening and margarine, and in the manufacture of soaps, pharmaceuticals, and lubricants. It is used as an ingredient in cosmetics. The press cake remaining after the oil is expressed is highly nutritious.


Sesame is now found in most of the tropical, subtropical, and southern temperate areas of the world. Although a major world oilseed crop, sesame is primarily grown by small farmers in developing countries in the southern latitudes.

The plants grow best in tropical climates, from spring to fall. Depending on conditions, varieties grow from about 0.5 to 2.5 m tall. The annual, erect plants, some have branches, others do not. The ovate leaves are opposite, grow alternately up the stem and are deeply veined. The flowers are white and shaped like a trumpet, on short peduncles in axils of leaves. One to three flowers appear in the leaf axils.

The fruit, about 2.5 cm long, is an oblong capsule with small seeds. Each plant may grow 15-20 fruits, which contain 70-100 seeds each. Plants and fruits will reach maturity in 80-100 days after sowing. When the seeds are ripe the capsule bursts open suddenly and scatters its seeds. The hulled seeds are creamy or pearly white and about 3 mm long and have a flattened pear shape. In the Orient, the matured whole plants are harvested and set in the field for 5-10 days under sun, resulting the capsule tips to dry and crack, and then remove the seed capsule for collecting seeds inside. The tiny seeds are flat, shiny and egg-shaped and according to the variety, are either greyish-white, red, brown or black.

Total world production of sesame in 1986 was 2.4 million metric tons, 65% of which was produced in Asia. The U.S. is the largest importer of sesame, importing about 40,000 metric tons per year, mostly from Mexico. Almost all sesame consumed in the U.S. is as a spice for food products such as hamburger buns and other bakery goods. Minor uses of sesame oil include pharmaceutical and skin care products and as a synergist for insecticides.

Sesame grows best in sandy well-drained soil and a hot climate with moderate rainfall. It is propagated by seed sown in Spring and it takes about four months for the seeds to ripen fully. The crop is then cut, tied in bundles and threshed. After threshing the seeds are cleaned and dried and usually hulled.


History:Sesame Seed

Sesame is one of the oldest seeds known to man. Thought to have originated in India or Africa, the first written record of sesame dates back to 3,000 BC. According to Assyrian mythology, sesame's origins go back even farther - there is a charming myth about the Gods imbibing sesame seed wine the night before they created the earth. References can be found to Babylonians using sesame oil, and to Egyptians growing their own sesame to make flour. Of course, Persia, birthplace of the 1001 Arabian Nights, has long been savvy to sesame's benefits. Ancient Persians relied on it both as a food and for its medicinal qualities.

Farther east, it's unclear when sesame first found its way to China. Some sources claim the Chinese were using sesame oil in their lamps as far back as 5,000 years ago, while others state sesame seeds were introduced into China about 2,000 years ago. It's probably true that the ancients first relied on the sesame plant to provide oil, and only later discovered its value as a food source. In the Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson concludes that sesame "...was probably introduced into China early in the Christian era, but the first firm evidence of it in China dates from the end of the 5th century AD."

While the exact circumstances surrounding sesame's arrival in China may be lost to history, there's no doubt that today it is a mainstay of Chinese cuisine. Toasted sesame seeds are sprinkled on salads, sesame paste is added to sauces, and delightfully aromatic sesame oil is used to flavor everything from dips to marinades.

Sesame seeds may be the oldest condiment known to man dating back to as early as 1600 BC. They are highly valued for their oil which is exceptionally resistant to rancidity. "Open sesame," the famous phrase from the Arabian Nights, reflects the distinguishing feature of the sesame seed pod, which bursts open when it reaches maturity. The scientific name for sesame seeds is Sesamun indicum.


The sesame plant (Sesamum indicum) is a lovely annual shrub with white bell-shaped flowers tinged with a hint of blue, red or yellow. It is grown worldwide, particularly in India, China, South America and Africa. Its present popularity is nothing new, for it has been cultivated for over 4,000 years in Mesopotamia and was found in Tutankhamun?s tomb. The seeds were ground for flour and today they are still used to make tahini, a delicious paste that has a long reputation for increasing longevity. Apparently the women of ancient Babylon would eat halva, a mixture of honey and sesame seeds, to prolong their youth and beauty, while Roman soldiers ate sesame seeds and honey to give them strength and energy.

While sesame seeds have been grown in tropical regions throughout the world since prehistoric times, traditional myths hold that their origins go back even further. According to Assyrian legend, when the gods met to create the world, they drank wine made from sesame seeds.

These seeds were thought to have first originated in India and were mentioned in early Hindu legends. In these legends, tales are told in which sesame seeds represent a symbol of immortality. From India, sesame seeds were introduced throughout the Middle East, Africa and Asia.

Sesame seeds were one of the first crops processed for oil as well as one of the earliest condiments. The addition of sesame seeds to baked goods can be traced back to ancient Egyptian times from an ancient tomb painting that depicts a baker adding the seeds to bread dough.

Sesame seeds were brought to the United States from Africa during the late 17th century. Currently, the largest commercial producers of sesame seeds include India, China and Mexico.


Naming Sesame:

Sesame . . . that engaging, mellifluous word evolved from the Arabic simsim, the Coptic semsem, and the Egyptian semsent. A German Egyptologist, named Ebers, discovered a papyrus scroll 65 feet long that contained a listing of ancient herbs and spices, among them was semsent. Cookery and Dining in Imperial Rome, by Apicius, cookbook author of the Roman era, refers to semsent in his book. The Romans enjoyed ground sesame seeds that they mixed with cumin to make a tasty spread for their bread

Benniseeds or benne seeds, as sesame seeds were called in the Bantu dialect, arrived in the United States with the West African slaves who brought only a few precious possessions with them. During the 17th and 18th centuries slave traders were running slave ships to the Southern States and the Caribbean. In Charleston, South Carolina and New Orleans, Louisiana, benniseeds were considered good luck and incorporated into many dishes that are still used in Southern cooking.

During the 1930s, the major vegetable oil used by Americans was sesame oil. At that time the United States was importing 58,000,000 pounds of sesame seeds a year mostly for producing oil. Two events combined to shift the importing of these huge quantities of sesame seeds to a diminished 12 million pounds by the early 1950s: World War II and the development of inexpensive soybean and cottonseed oils.

A 1956 Pillsbury Bake-off contest winner changed the course of the downward spiraling sesame seed. The Washington, D.C. homemaker created an Open Sesame Pie and started a frenzy with commercial bakers sprinkling the tasty little seeds on all sorts of breads and crackers. It was the hamburger bun, however, that put sesame seeds back into the spotlight. Today, it's difficult to find hamburger buns without sesame seeds.


Traditional Uses:

"The butter of the Middle East," tahini, a smooth, creamy paste made of toasted, ground hulled sesame seeds, is a centuries-old traditional ingredient in Middle Eastern cooking. Hummos, a Middle Eastern appetizer that has become a universal favorite is made of ground chickpeas, garlic, lemon juice, salt, and tahini. Baba ghanoush, another favorite appetizer known throughout the Middle East, has a base of roasted eggplant seasoned with tahini, lemon juice, garlic, and salt. These sesame-based dishes have been handed down from generation to generation for centuries.

In the ancient Arab world, preparations for a caravan trip meant preparing provisions that would not only sustain them through the hot, dry desert but would offer nourishment that pleasured them as well. Open sesame! They began with a pound of dry breadcrumbs, kneaded them into three-quarters of a pound each of pitted dates, almonds, and pistachios, and added a few spoonsful of sesame oil to moisten the mixture. Then they formed the mixture into balls and rolled them in a coating of sesame seeds. This handy old recipe makes ideal present-day backpacking food as well.

In addition to its popular use as oil for salads or cooking, sesame oil is used in producing margarine, soap making, pharmaceuticals, paints, and lubricants. In the cosmetic field, sesame oil is used as a base in developing perfumes.

After the sesame oil is pressed out of the seed, the resulting residue is referred to as a seed cake that is very high in protein. A portion of this nutritious seed cake is used as animal feed, while the remainder is ground into sesame flour and added to health foods.

Southern Indian cuisine depends on sesame oil for cooking, while in China it was the only cooking oil until quite recently. Today sesame oil is often combined with bland, less expensive oils.

Used liberally in Chinese cooking, sesame oil is added to many dishes as a seasoning just before serving to benefit fully from its unique fragrance. Chinese confectioners have long favored the use of sesame seeds as a coating on their deep-fried sweets, still available in Oriental bakeries today. Korean cuisine combines sesame, garlic, and pimiento as a triad in many of their traditional dishes.

Mythological background:

According to Assyrian legend, when the gods met to create the world, they drank wine made from sesame seeds. In early Hindu legends, tales are told in which sesame seeds represent a symbol of immortality. "Open sesame," the famous phrase from the Arabian Nights, reflects the distinguishing feature of the sesame seed pod, which bursts open when it reaches maturity.

Black Sesame Varieties and Grading,Qualities.

Like any oily seed, sesame ages by becoming rancid. Select sesame that looks, smells and tastes fresh and sweet.

Black sesame seed is a very good tonic herb. It builds Yin Jing, and therefore it is a longevity herb. In fact, Polygonum, when it is dug up from the ground, is boiled in Black sesame seed soup, which is why Polygonum is dark brown. Raw Polygonum is nearly white underneath its thin, dark skin. To build essence (Yin Jing), Sesame may be combined with Lycium, Polygonum, Ligustrum, Steamed Rehmannia, Eucommia, Placenta or any other combination of Jing tonics.

In addition to its essence-building capacity, Black Sesame also builds blood. It acts in much the same way as Polygonum. As a component of a blood tonic formula, it may be combined with Longan, Dang Gui, Polygonum and / or Lycium. However, since it is generally used in food, it is most often combined with Longan fruit

Black sesame seed is moistening to the intestines and helps move the bowels. It prevents and relieves constipation due to dryness of the intestines. It is combined with Dang Gui, Cistanche, Polygonum and Biota to achieve the best result.

Black sesame seed is extremely rich in calcium, containing 85 milligrams per gram of seeds. It is also high in protein, phosphorous, iron and magnesium.

Sesame Seed in Commercial Class:

Manufacture Suppliers normally classify Sesame into following grade: Natural Sesame Seed,Hulled Sesame Seed,Toasted Natural Sesame Seed,Toasted Hulled Sesame Seed,Roasted Sesame Powder.

Properties,Functions and Applications of Black Sesame.

Functions: Sweet in flavor, mild in nature, it is related to the liver, kidney and large intestine channels. Nourishes the liver, kidney, and all internal viscera, benefits qi and blood, produces yin (body fluid) and lubricates the intestines, promotes lactation.

Applications: Seseme seed benefits the body as a whole, especially the liver, kidney, spleen and stomach. Its high oil content lubricates the intestines and nourishes all the internal viscera. It also blackens one's hair, especially the black sesame. Hence, it is applied to white hair, habitual constipation, and insufficient lactation. Sesame oil is also helpful in treating intestinal worms like ascaris, tapeworm, etc.

Cosmetic properties:Anti-free radical, Moisturises, Nourishes, Regenerates

Sesame is an African plant, well-known for its oil-rich seeds. It was one of the earliest oil-producing plants to be cultivated and was of considerable importance to ancient civilisations. The oil has remarkable cosmetic properties, being very rich in essential fatty acids and vitamin E.

1.For general weakness and infirmity:

Use 30 g black sesame seeds and boil with 100 g sweet rice to make porridge. Add appropriate sugar after well done.

2.For dizziness due to deficient liver and kidney, and premature white hair:

Decoct black sesame seeds, Chinese wolfberry fruit and tuber of multiflower knotweed, each 15 g, and 9 g chrysanthemum in water for 15 minutes under slow fire. Drink the decoction once daily for a long period of 1-2 months.

3. For constipation due to drying intestines of the blood and yin (body fluid) insufficiency type, vertigo (an illusion of movement, a sensation as if the external world were revolving around the patient--objective vertigo--or as if he himself were revolving in space--subjective vertigo) and dizziness due to deficient liver and kidney:

a) Crush some walnut, and pulverize dry mulberry together with equal amount of black sesame seeds. Mix all ingredients with bee honey. Administer 2-3 teaspoonfuls, 3 times daily.

B) Used with Chinese angelica root, desert living cistanche, hemp seed, etc.

4.For chronic rhinitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose) with running nose:

Heat 20 ml. sesame oil. Drop few drops of cooled boiled oil to each nostril, thrice daily.

5.For toothache:

Boil 50 g sesame seeds in 500 ml water. Use the solution for gargling.

6.For promoting lactation:

Bake sesame seeds to brown and grind into powder. Eat as one likes.

7.For poor eye-sight and early greying of hair due to insufficiency of liver and kidney blood:

Sesame seed could be used alone, or it could be used with mulberry leaves, prepared Rehmannia root, glossy privet fruit, eclipta, etc.

8.For Baldness or Hairloss:Black Sesame and Foti

Black sesame seed is a very good tonic herb. It builds Yin Jing, and therefore it is a longevity herb. In addition to its essence-building capacity, Black Sesame also builds blood. It acts in much the same way as Polygonum. Black sesame seed is moistening to the intestines and helps move the bowels. It prevents and relieves constipation due to dryness of the intestines. Black sesame seed is extremely rich in calcium, containing 85 milligrams per gram of seeds. It is also high in protein, phosphorous, iron and magnesium.Combined Black Sesame with Polygonum to keep the hair youthful and dark

9.Longevity herb Black Sesame:

Black sesame seed is a very good tonic herb. It builds Yin Jing, and therefore it is a longevity herb. In fact, Polygonum, when it is dug up from the ground, is boiled in Black sesame seed soup, which is why Polygonum is dark brown. Raw Polygonum is nearly white underneath its thin, dark skin. To build essence (Yin Jing), Sesame may be combined with Lycium, Polygonum, Ligustrum, Steamed Rehmannia, Eucommia, Placenta or any other combination of Jing tonics.

10.Intestines and move the bowels:

Black sesame seed is moistening to the intestines and helps move the bowels. It prevents and relieves constipation due to dryness of the intestines. It is combined with Dang Gui, Cistanche, Polygonum and Biota to achieve the best result.Combine with Hemp seed and Dang Gui to tonify the yin of the intestines and to promote healthy bowel movements.

11.Peanut and Black Sesame:Boost Breast size

Peanut and Black sesame rich in Vitamin E,prompt the mature growth of ovary,increase amount of mature oocyte,stimulate the secretion of estrogen,thus enlarge the galactophore canal growth and enlarge breast size.Antioxidant from sesame release strong anti aging effects and plays as good remedy for women.

Black Sesame Dosage and Administration.

10-30 g.Decoction, or made into porridge along with rice, or used as an ingredient of boluses. Or fried and grinded into powder form, and taken with salt. They can also be eaten by chewing the raw seeds.
Sesame seeds can also be decocted for bathing or pounded for external application.

Add sesame seeds into the batter the next time you make homemade bread, muffins or cookies.

Use the traditional macrobiotic seasoning, gomasio, to enliven your food. You can either purchase gomasio at a health food store or make your own by using a mortar and pestle. Simply mix together one part dry roasted sea salt with twelve parts dry roasted sesame seeds.
Sesame seeds add a great touch to steamed broccoli that has been sprinkled with lemon juice.
Spread tahini (sesame paste) on toasted bread and either drizzle with honey for a sweet treat or combine with miso for a savory snack.
Combine toasted sesame seeds with rice vinegar, tamari and crushed garlic and use as a dressing for salads, vegetables and noodles.
Healthy saut?chicken with sesame seeds, tamari, garlic, ginger and your favorite vegetables for a healthy, but quick, Asian-inspired dinner.

Cautions on Use:

It should be avoided by those who suffer from loose stools due to insufficiency of the spleen.

Safety:

Sesame seeds are not a commonly allergenic food and are not known to contain measurable amounts of goitrogen or purines. However, the hulls of sesame seeds do contain oxalates. In fact, most of the calcium found in the seed hull comes in the form of calcium oxalate. The sesame seed paste (tahini) found in grocery stores is most often made with seed kernels:the part of the sesame seed that remains after the hull has been removed. These products would generally be safe in moderate amounts on an oxalate-restricted diet. However, products containing the seed hulls might have more oxalates than desired on a low oxalate meal plan. Product labels do not always indicate whether the hulls have been removed or not. For this reason, check the color of the tahini carefully and also inquire as to its taste. Most sesame seed butters made from whole, non-hulled seeds are fairly dark in color and have a much more bitter taste than butters made from hulled sesame kernels. For more on the subject of oxalates, please see "Can you tell me what oxalates are and in which foods they can be found?"

Primary Combinations:

1. Polygonum to keep the hair youthful and dark
2. Hemp seed and Dang Gui to tonify the yin of the intestines and to promote healthy bowel movements

Toxicity Study of Sesamol:

RTECS:SM0890000 Chemical Name:Phenol,3,4-(methylenedioxy)-; Beilstein Reference No:0127450.Referene:5-19-02-00532(Beilstein Handbook Reference); Note:Tumorigen,Natural product.
Synonyms:1,3-Benzodioxol-5-ol;3,4-Methylenedioxyphenol;Methylene ether of oxyhydroquinone;Sesamol.

Tumorigenic Data:

TDLo-Lowest published toxic dose.Oral.Rodent-rat.dose/period:874 gm/kg/2Y-C.Toxic Effects:Tumorigenic-Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria.Gastrointestinal-tumors.Reference:JJCREP.(Elsevier Science Pub.BV,POB 211,1000AE Amsterdam,Netherlands)V.76-1985-Volume(issue)/page/year:83,1279,1992.

TDLo-Lowest published toxic dose.Oral.Rodent-mouse.dose/period:1092 gm/kg/2Y-C.Toxic Effects:Tumorigenic-Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria.Gastrointestinal-tumors.Reference:JJCREP.(Elsevier Science Pub.BV,POB 211,1000AE Amsterdam,Netherlands)V.76-1985-Volume(issue)/page/year:83,1279,1992.

TD-Toxic dose(other than lowest).Oral.Rodent-mouse.dose/period:1612 gm/kg/96W-C.Toxic Effects:Tumorigenic-Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria.Gastrointestinal-tumor.Reference:JJCREP.(Elsevier Science Pub.BV,POB 211,1000AE Amsterdam,Netherlands)V.76-1985-Volume(issue)/page/year:81,207,1990.

TD-Toxic dose(other than lowest).Oral.Rodent-rat.dose/period:1092 gm/kg/2Y-C.Toxic Effects:Tumorigenic-Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria.Gastrointestinal-tumor.Reference:JJCREP.(Elsevier Science Pub.BV,POB 211,1000AE Amsterdam,Netherlands)V.76-1985-Volume(issue)/page/year:81,207,1990.

Data of USA: EPA TSCA Section 8(B) Chemical Inventory.

Modern Researches of Black Sesame.

The chief constituent of the sesame seed is its fatty oil, which usually amounts to about 44 to 60 percent. Noted for its stability, the oil resists oxidative rancidity. The excellent stability is due to the presence of natural antioxidants such as sesamolin, sesamine and sesamol. The fatty acid composition of sesame oil varies considerably among the different cultivars worldwide. It also contains much fat, mainly glyceride loneleic acid, sucrose, lecithin, protein, etc. Also vitamins A, D and E.

Sesame oil is mostly composed of triglycerides of the singly unsaturated oleic acid (40%) and the doubly unsaturated linoleic acid (45%), besides approximately 10% saturated fats (iodine index 110). Because of its powerful antioxidant and because triply unsaturated fatty acids are missing, sesame oil has an excellent shelf life.

Oriental sesame oil owes its characteristic flavor to several compounds which form only during the toasting procedure. Most prominent are 2-furylmethanthiol, which also plays an important part in the flavor of coffee and baked meat, guajacol (2-methoxyphenol), phenylethanthiol and furaneol (4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3 (2H) furanone); furthermore, vinylguacol, 2-pentylpyridine and other N-containing heterocycles are reported.

After oil extraction, the remaining meal contains 35-50% protein, and is rich in tryptophan and methionine. Seeds with hulls are rich in calcium (1.3%) and provide a valuable source of minerals. The addition of sesame to the high lysine meal of soybean produces a well balanced animal feed.

Sesame oil is used in the preparation of Iodinol and Brominol, which are employed for external internal or subcutaneous use. The best qualities of the oil are largely used in the manufacture of margarine. Sesame oil may be used as a substitute for olive oil in making the official liniments, ointments and plasters in India and Africa. The leaves which abound in gummy matter when mixed with water form a rich bland mucilage used in infantile cholera, diarrhoea, dysentery, catarrh and bladder troubles, acute cystitis and strangury. The oil is said to be laxative and to promote menstruation.

Antioxidant properties of sesame (Sesamum indicum) fractions:

Foods of plant origin are known to provide a complex mixture of natural substances with antioxidative effects. Such antioxidant activity appears to be closely related to the prevention of degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis and the process of aging, among others.

This purpose of the study was to determine total phenolic content, total antioxidant status (TAS), free radical scavenging capacity and inhibition of low density lipoprotein (LDL) by whole black (WB) and whole white (WW) sesame seeds and their respective hull fractions (BH and WH).

Phenolic constituents of sesame were extracted into 80% ethanol. Total phenolic content was determined according to Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as catechin equivalents. Free radical scavenging capacity of sesame extracts (5-40mg/mL) was measured using 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Total antioxidant activity was determined by trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and expressed as trolox equivalents (TE). Inhibition of LDL oxidation was measured by incubating crude extracts with LDL and CuSO4 at 37C. Formation of conjugated dienes was determined at 25-100ppm levels of phenolics.

Total phenolic contents of whole seed and hull of black sesame were 29.9+-0.6 and 146.6+-0.6 mg catechin equivalents/1g crude extract, respectively. The corresponding values for white sesame were 29.7+-0.9 and 10.6+-1.6 mg catechin equivalents/1g crude extract. TAS was highest with black sesame hulls {65.9+-1.7TE} while white whole seed showed the lowest {4.4+-0.6TE}. DPPH radical scavenging capacity at 40mg/mL was 94.9+-0.8, 25.1+-0.4, 14.4+-0.9 and 2.5+-0.4 for BH, BW, WH and WW, respectively. Inhibition of LDL oxidation at 100ppm level was highest for BH ((96.7) followed by 84.6, 78.4 and 57.3% for WH, BW and WW, respectively.

Results demonstrate considerable antioxidant activity of sesame fractions especially black sesame hulls and their potential health benefits. Thus, sesame and its components may serve as viable natural sources of antioxidants for food and non-food applications.(C. M. LIYANA-PATHIRANA1, D. S. Wall, and F. Shahidi. (1) Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NF A1B 3X9, Canada.)

Applications and Properties:
Applications:

Beneficial Nutritions:good source of copper,manganese,calcium,tryptophan,
magnesium,iron,phosphorus,zinc,vitamin B1 (thiamin),dietary fiber.
a quarter-cup of sesame seeds supplies 74.0% of the daily value for copper, 31.6% of the DV for magnesium, and 35.1% of the DV for calcium.extremely rich in calcium, containing 85 milligrams per gram of seeds. It is also high in protein, phosphorous, iron and magnesium. This rich assortment of minerals translates into the following health benefits:
Relief for Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Supports Vascular and Respiratory Health.
Calcium Helps Prevent Colon Cancer, Osteoporosis,migraine headaches and PMS.
Zinc for Bone Health and prevent osteoporosis.
Phytosterols Lower Cholesterol.
General weakness and infirmity: a combination detailed in literature.
Dizziness due to deficient liver and kidney, and premature white hair:a combination detailed in literature.
Constipation,vertigo.Toothache.
Chronic rhinitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose) with running nose.
Poor eye-sight and early greying of hair due to insufficiency of liver and kidney blood.
Antioxidant.Baldness or Hairloss.Longevity.
Intestines and move the bowels.
Promoting lactation and Boost Breast size.
Properties:

Seseme seed benefits the body as a whole, especially the liver, kidney, spleen and stomach. Its high oil content lubricates the intestines and nourishes all the internal viscera. It also blackens one's hair, especially the black sesame. Hence, it is applied to white hair, habitual constipation, and insufficient lactation. Sesame oil is also helpful in treating intestinal worms like ascaris, tapeworm, etc.
Dosage: 10-30 g.
Safety and Toxicity:

Sesame seeds are not a commonly allergenic food and are not known to contain measurable amounts of goitrogen or purines. However, the hulls of sesame seeds do contain oxalates.

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